The House of Augustus

The House of Augustus


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Located on the eminent Palatine Hill, The House of Augustus was the modest home of Ancient Rome’s first emperor, Augustus. It is located close to the so-called Hut of Romulus and other sites that have a connection to the foundation of Rome.

The House of Augustus should not be confused with Domus Augustana, which was the later palace of the emperors of Rome.

History of The House of Augustus

From 1865, under commission by Napoleon III, Pietro Rosa began excavations of what is now referred to the House of Livia. This included a superficial excavation of The House of Augustus.

In 1937, Alfonso Bartoli conducted further surveys of the area and discovered archaeological remnants of collapsed vaults, and from 1956, extensive excavations began which revealed a further set of rooms.

The grandnephew and heir of Julius Caesar, Augustus, lived in the house for many years. He purchased the land in around 41/40BC. Soon after, the spot was struck by lightning, so Augustus declared the land public property and dedicated a temple to Apollo Palatinus there. The land around the site became the Emperor’s home.

Whilst considered to be relatively small, especially when compared to the Imperial Palace built at a later date, the House of Augustus contains a vivid collection of frescoes.

In the 2000s, further work revealed that the house would have originally been much larger.

Open to the public since 2008, the House of Augustus has been carefully restored and offers a fascinating insight into the life of one of ancient Rome’s most prominent figures.

The House of Augustus Today

Today, the house is open to visitors, who can enjoy walking around the site, including through what would have originally been Augustus’ private bedroom and study, which he slept in during both the winter and summer for over 40 years.

There are extremely imaginative audio-visual and laser displays which illustrate what all of the different rooms would have been used for.

It is recommended that visitors employ the use of a guide for the house and other related historical sites in the area to make the most of their visit.

Getting to The House of Augustus

From the centre of Rome, the House of Augustus is reachable in around 10 minutes by car, via Via Cavour. There are also regular bus and metro services which depart from the centre of the city every few minutes, and take between 20 and 25 minutes to reach the site. By foot, it takes around half an hour to reach the site, via Via Nazionale.


Wettin Dynasty

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

Wettin Dynasty, major European dynasty, genealogically traceable to the start of the 10th century ad . Its earliest known ancestors were active in pushing Germany’s frontier eastward into formerly Slav territory and by the end of the 1080s two of their descendants, brothers, held not only the countship of Wettin (on a crossing of the Saale River downstream from Halle), but also, farther east, the margravate of Meissen (on the Elbe River). The Wettins of Meissen vastly enlarged their line’s territory by becoming landgraves of Thuringia in 1264 and electors of Saxony in 1423.

Of major importance was the division of the Wettin dynasty into Ernestine and Albertine lines in 1485. The Albertines secured the electorate of Saxony from the Ernestines in 1547. The Ernestines retained thereafter some less important possessions in Thuringia which they constantly subdivided between themselves. Their possessions became known as the Saxon duchies and included Saxe-Weimar, Saxe-Coburg, Saxe-Eisenach, Saxe-Altenburg, and Saxe-Gotha, among others. In the 19th and 20th centuries the Ernestine Wettins of the Saxe-Coburg branch rose to unprecedented heights. One became king of the Belgians as Leopold I in 1831, and another, Albert, married the British queen Victoria in 1840 and was the ancestor of five successive British sovereigns (though the name Wettin was rarely cited in England, and that of the house of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha was officially changed, for the British, to the house of Windsor in 1917). Yet another Ernestine, Ferdinand, married Maria II of Portugal in 1836 and was the founder of the Portuguese royal house that reigned from 1853 to 1910. And finally, a fourth Ernestine became prince of Bulgaria in 1887 and king in 1908, as Ferdinand I, with his descendant reigning until 1946.

The Albertines were electors of Saxony from 1547 and kings from 1806 to 1918. They also provided two kings of Poland, Augustus II and Augustus III, between 1697 and 1763. See also Saxon duchies Windsor, house of.


Contents

The oldest member of the House of Wettin who is known for certain is Theodoric I of Wettin, also known as Dietrich, Thiedericus, and Thierry I of Liesgau (died c. 982). He was most probably based in the Liesgau (located at the western edge of the Harz). Around 1000, the family acquired Wettin Castle, which was originally built by the local Slavic tribes (see Sorbs), after which they named themselves. Wettin Castle is located in Wettin in the Hassegau (or Hosgau) on the Saale River. Around 1030, the Wettin family received the Eastern March as a fief. [1]

The prominence of the Wettins in the Slavic Saxon Eastern March (or Ostmark) caused Emperor Henry IV to invest them with the March of Meissen as a fief in 1089. The family advanced over the course of the Middle Ages: in 1263, they inherited the landgraviate of Thuringia (although without Hesse) and in 1423, they were invested with the Duchy of Saxony, centred at Wittenberg, thus becoming one of the prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire.

The family split into two ruling branches in 1485 when the sons of Frederick II, Elector of Saxony divided the territories hitherto ruled jointly. The elder son Ernest, who had succeeded his father as Prince-elector, received the territories assigned to the Elector (Electorate of Saxony) and Thuringia, while his younger brother Albert obtained the March of Meissen, which he ruled from Dresden. As Albert ruled under the title of "Duke of Saxony", his possessions were also known as Ducal Saxony.

Ernestines Edit

The older Ernestine branch remained predominant until 1547 and played an important role in the beginnings of the Protestant Reformation. Frederick III (Friedrich der Weise) appointed Martin Luther (1512) and Philipp Melanchthon (1518) to the University of Wittenberg, which he had established in 1502. [2]

The Ernestine predominance ended in the Schmalkaldic War (1546/7), which pitted the Protestant Schmalkaldic League against the Emperor Charles V. Although itself Lutheran, the Albertine branch rallied to the Emperor's cause. Charles V had promised Moritz the rights to the electorship. After the Battle of Mühlberg, Johann Friedrich der Großmütige, had to cede territory (including Wittenberg) and the electorship to his cousin Moritz. Although imprisoned, Johann Friedrich was able to plan a new university. It was established by his three sons on 19 March 1548 as the Höhere Landesschule at Jena. On 15 August 1557, Emperor Ferdinand I awarded it the status of university. [2]

The Ernestine line was thereafter restricted to Thuringia and its dynastic unity swiftly crumbled, dividing into a number of smaller states, the Ernestine duchies. Nevertheless, with Ernst der Fromme, Duke of Saxe-Gotha (1601–1675), the house gave rise to an important early-modern ruler who was ahead of his time in supporting the education of his people and in improving administration. In the 18th century, Karl August, Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, established what was to become known as Weimar Classicism at his court in Weimar, notably by bringing Johann Wolfgang von Goethe there. [2]

It was only in the 19th century that one of the many Ernestine branches, the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, regained importance through marriages as the "stud of Europe", by ascending the thrones of Belgium (in 1831), Portugal (1853–1910), Bulgaria (1908–1946) and the United Kingdom (in 1901).


Greensboro Historic Homes For Sale

The Charles Augustus Hendrix House: A Grand 1890s Mansion in Dunleath, $300,000

Those great Doric columns grab your attention, don’t they? The Charles Augustus Hendrix House is one grand old mansion. And at $300,000, it’s far more affordable than most of its surviving peers. The house needs some work, but, unless there are stuff-of-nightmares issues (foundation, plumbing, etc.) unseen in the listing, that could be a remarkable price.

The address is 425 E. Hendrix Street in the Dunleath Historic District. The house has four bedrooms and three and a half bathrooms in 3,255 square feet. At $92 per square foot, that’s roughly a fixer-upper price. The floors need refinishing, and a new owner might well want to do something with the kitchen and bathrooms, but the place appears to be quite livable.

It has retained many period features, including pocket doors, built-in cabinets and at least a couple beautiful unpainted fireplace mantels. The slate roof is intact. There’s no sign of the radiators that must have been in every room. The railing around the second-floor deck has disappeared as well, so there might be a bit of a building-code issue there.

The Hendrix Family Home

Amazingly, the house has remained in the extended Hendrix family since it was built. County records show the date of the house as 1902, but the city directory shows brothers Charles and Edward Hendrix living there with their wives by 1896. The NRHP nomination for the Summit Avenue Historic District gives the date as 1895-99. The brothers appear to have bought the property in the 1880s. Edward, a broker, died in 1919 at age 59.


The Changing Landscape of Ancient Rome. Archaeology and History of the Palatine Hill

Studying ancient - as well as medieval or modern - cities basically means telling local urban stories based on the reconstruction of changing landscapes through the centuries. Given the fragmentary nature of archaeological evidence, it is necessary to create new images that would give back the physical aspect of the urban landscape and that would bring it to life again. We are not just content with analyzing the many elements still visible of the ancient city. The connections between objects and architectures, visible and non visible buildings, which have been broken through time have to be rejoined, to acknowledge the elements that compose the urban landscape. Landscape and its content are a very relevant and still vital part of any national cultural heritage. The course will introduce students to the way we have been reflecting on over the last twenty years and still are engaged with the study of the past of our cities, beginning from the most complex case in the ancient Mediterranean World: the core of Italy and of Roman Empire. On the other hand, knowledge means also preservation and defense of material remains and cultural memory. “The Changing Landscape of Ancient Rome. Archeology and History of the Palatine Hill” presents to a large public the topographical lay-out of the most relevant part of the city (according the Greek and Roman Historians Rome was founded on the Palatine). Research developed on the Palatine since the end of last century by the team of Sapienza Classical Archaeologists opened a new phase in the urban archaeological investigation and in the scientific debate about the relation between archaeological features and literary tradition as well as the “correct use“ of both kind of evidence, key issues of wide archaeological and historical significance.

Рецензии

The course is a good blend of entertaining and educational. You learn a tremendous amount about Rome and the architecture in that particular part of the city.

Wonderful Professor, it was really easy to understand the context of this course due to the well-organized information and slide-show. Highly recommended.

Year 31 b.c.e. After nearly fifty year of Civil Wars, a 32 years old man, son of a sister of Julius Caesar, defeated his last enemy. Few years later - 27 and 23 b.c.e. – Roman Senators assigned him an immense power, asking him to watch over a new era of peace and respect for Roman laws and ancient traditions. They called him Augustus, a word meaning “blessed by Jupiter the king of the Gods”. The nephew of Julius Caesar became the first Emperor of Rome, and choose the Palatine as his own residing place.

By the end of this module you will able to: - discuss major changes occurred between Late Republican phase and Augustan age in Rome - define and identify a certain number of Roman monuments and/or places - identify Augustan artifacts, decorations and building techniques

Преподаватели

Paolo Carafa

Текст видео

[MUSIC] [LAUGH] [MUSIC] >> Hello, everybody and welcome back. Now we know that the upper part of the palace that Augustus created on the Palatine was the house of the Emperor. And this residence was divided into a private part and a public part. Let's have a look at the private part. The entrance was on this side. There was an atrium here, small rooms for services here, a first Paris style. And in a part where the bedroom of the emperor was a room where he could retire and use when he wanted some rest or some quiet. And the second peristyle is here. Also in this case, we have a figure evidence of how the complex must have looked like. Here you can see the outer limit of this residence along the street which was running this way at the upper part of this house. You can see this window here and here you get imagine on this part in here. In this small window here giving light into this room maybe the inner part of the house. This new house joined three previous houses which stood here in closing the previous street. So this is the situation before 36 BC and this is how the new house would have looked like with Augustus's bedroom and the inner part of the house the Siracusa. This is how the entrance of the house would have looked like as we can figure out from this coin. Any sign of the honor given by the Senate to Augustus was shown in front of the house such as this. This is a Crown Corona Civica was the greatest honor that the Senate could give to a very honorable citizen to citizens who had helped the state in dangerous times. And inside there was an inscription to the father of the country Potter Patry. And on each side of the entrance, had laurel trees in sign of honor and altars to celebrate writes in honor of the gods connecting to Augustus himself and the statues of the gods Venus and Mars, the parents of the Roman people in mythical terms. Moving from the entrance along the street outside this complex we have minor monuments such as this sculpture here and a fountain. And here once again, you have the image of how all this would have looked. You can still see today the inner part of the ground floor of this house which is wonderfully painted with a lead pipe with the name Livia engraved on it. Which is evidence of the fact that the wife of the Emperor must have lived inside there. The two parts of the house, the private part and the public part housed cults. Obviously in the private part of the house, you had the cult to the divine ancestors to the Larry's which were housed in a small shrine inside here, which we can figure out referring to the sculpture here. And in the public part, of course, the most important goddess for Rome Vesta was placed in a small round shrine as we can see from this coin minted at that time. But maybe the most fascinating part of the palace was the underground part sustaining the lower terrace. This is how the palace would have looked from the front, the bedrock of the hill. The filled in part of the previous house of Octavian and the porticos with staircase and temple, the Curia, the public part and the private part. And this is the front of the palace once again. And here we have the remains with vaults and ceilings and floors sustaining all this. We know that the Roman citizens used to house the slaves underneath the floor of their house. Augustus did just the same. But in this case, we have not just simple slaves. We have the bureaucracy that the emperors needed to manage these huge empire that now exists. You remember that in the year 12, the pontifex maximus died. The domus public along the sacred way was destroyed and a whole room was built up on that place. This happened because Augustus became pontifex maximus himself and made public a part of that house. But from this point on, the Roman state really changed because the house of the Emperor is a representation of the leading part of the Roman state. Here you have the image of the Roman Forum at the end of the first century BC, and of the house of Augustus at the same time. The Roman Forum was a public square created at the end of the eighth century to let the new political system build the house of Augustus in blue had to a vast colonnades which can be used as public squares. On the limit of the Roman Forum you have the sit of the Senate in yellow and in the porticos in front of the temple inside the house of Augustus, you have a seat for the Senate as well. Near the Roman Forum, the Larry's of Rome were worshiped and inside Augustus House the Larry's were worshipped. And Augustus House is close to the Larry's as well as the house of the wrecks Sacrum is close to the Larry's in the forum. And the goddess Vesta is inside the house. And the pontifex maximus house as well is now inside the palace of the Emperor. So all this system that was as old as Rome, created outside in the Palatine along the Roman Forum is now brought back inside the hill and inside the house of the Emperor. And this is how we can imagine this incredible palace facing onto the circus maximus, the entrance, the sub structure with the offices sustaining the lower terrace, the porticos in front of the temple, the Curia, the private part, of the public part, and the temple to Apollo thank you very much.


The Changing Landscape of Ancient Rome. Archaeology and History of the Palatine Hill

Studying ancient - as well as medieval or modern - cities basically means telling local urban stories based on the reconstruction of changing landscapes through the centuries. Given the fragmentary nature of archaeological evidence, it is necessary to create new images that would give back the physical aspect of the urban landscape and that would bring it to life again. We are not just content with analyzing the many elements still visible of the ancient city. The connections between objects and architectures, visible and non visible buildings, which have been broken through time have to be rejoined, to acknowledge the elements that compose the urban landscape. Landscape and its content are a very relevant and still vital part of any national cultural heritage. The course will introduce students to the way we have been reflecting on over the last twenty years and still are engaged with the study of the past of our cities, beginning from the most complex case in the ancient Mediterranean World: the core of Italy and of Roman Empire. On the other hand, knowledge means also preservation and defense of material remains and cultural memory. “The Changing Landscape of Ancient Rome. Archeology and History of the Palatine Hill” presents to a large public the topographical lay-out of the most relevant part of the city (according the Greek and Roman Historians Rome was founded on the Palatine). Research developed on the Palatine since the end of last century by the team of Sapienza Classical Archaeologists opened a new phase in the urban archaeological investigation and in the scientific debate about the relation between archaeological features and literary tradition as well as the “correct use“ of both kind of evidence, key issues of wide archaeological and historical significance.

Рецензии

The course is a good blend of entertaining and educational. You learn a tremendous amount about Rome and the architecture in that particular part of the city.

Wonderful Professor, it was really easy to understand the context of this course due to the well-organized information and slide-show. Highly recommended.

Year 31 b.c.e. After nearly fifty year of Civil Wars, a 32 years old man, son of a sister of Julius Caesar, defeated his last enemy. Few years later - 27 and 23 b.c.e. – Roman Senators assigned him an immense power, asking him to watch over a new era of peace and respect for Roman laws and ancient traditions. They called him Augustus, a word meaning “blessed by Jupiter the king of the Gods”. The nephew of Julius Caesar became the first Emperor of Rome, and choose the Palatine as his own residing place.

By the end of this module you will able to: - discuss major changes occurred between Late Republican phase and Augustan age in Rome - define and identify a certain number of Roman monuments and/or places - identify Augustan artifacts, decorations and building techniques

Преподаватели

Paolo Carafa

Текст видео

[MUSIC] >> We're standing on one of the late Republican streets on the Palatine Hill. Behind me, you see the sanctuary of the Great Mother, where the house of Romulus was, and the order of the foundation was. Here is the place where Octavian wanted to live, to be the neighbor of the founder. Here is another late Republican house, but all these have been filled in after the year 66 BC, when Octavian decided to build a new palace, the house of Augustus, the Domus Al Gusti. The call of the palace, was a temple dedicated to Apollo, and we've already seen this already seen this. None of these remains either imposing or well preserved, are self explaining. We need to integrate the missing parts to understand, how did they look, what they were? So this is the only way to understand the changing landscape, and the history of the city. If we look at the archaeological shape of Rome in this phase, we see that the one monument wanted by Octavian on the Palatine Hill, is his private house here. We now know that he was born in a house in this corner. But around the year 40 BC, he moved here in front of the house of Romulus, the mythical house of Romulus. And right up of the sanctuary where the Romans believed that the she-wolf had suckled Remus and Romulus. At first, Octavian lived in a previous house, and then he decided, To enlarge it, creating two para styles, one here, and one here. Suddenly, in the year 36 BC, lightning struck the central part of this house, and Octavian interpreted this as a sign of the will of the god Apollo, to have a house in that place. So he abandoned his previous project. The works for the construction of this new part were still ongoing, but the house was destroyed. A huge field was created up there, and over that, a new great palace, larger than two hectare was created. Here, we have the plan of the underground floor of this incredible house, and here we have the reconstructed plan of the ground floor. The core of the system was the temple for the god Apollo here. Augustus himself lived in a small part of this huge palace here. This is the private house of the new emperor, and here we have a public part. The main god here was a female goddess, Vester, in this public part. The entrance to the complex was an arch erected in honor of Augustus' father Gaius Octavius. We have the scanty remains of this building, this red architectural fragment you can see here. But we know that the upper part of the arch was a shrine enclosing a sculpture, a chariot made by Lucius, a famous Greek sculpture. What we have now, of this huge area are mainly the foundations of the temple. And as you can see here, these foundations cover the foundations of the previous house, which is filled up. So the house was surely abandoned at the moment of erecting this building. And this is how we can imagine all this. A temple with golden capitals, a private house, the public part of the house, the porticos surrounding the area right in front of the main temple, a minor sacred area here. A small shrine in front, and the Biblioteca, the library where the Senate house could be housed, this is also a curia. And the lower terrace with trees, is what is called the area Apolinace, the sacred area for Apollo. We know a lot about this incredible building, thanks to the memory of the literary sources. As you can see, for all these notes all around, we had the front of this temple porticos, the public part, the private part, the other wing of the porticos, and the new curia here. Fragments, you can still see, if you go there, help us in reconstructing the Porticos, and the sculpture helps us in figuring out the layout of all of this. Ancient sculptures can also aid us in figuring out minor parts of this huge complex, such as this shrine here, as you can see, a precinct here with the tree, and a small shrine outside. So this is the source, we have to imagine all this. This huge complex base was articulated in an upper part in the lower part, the residential part here, in the monumental part in front of this temple, with the two terraces. And this huge building, sustaining all this and containing prisons, slave houses, and the offices, or the new bureaucracy that the emperors now needed to manage this new empire. In the most remote part of all this, is the sanctuary, where the Romans believed that the she-wolf had suckled Remus and Romulus. The emperor lived around the memory of the foundation of the city. The upper part of this palace was the residential part, but we'll talk about it next time. Thank you very much.


Archaeology and history: the house of Augustus - JONATHAN M. HALL , ARTIFACT & ARTIFICE: CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY AND THE ANCIENT HISTORIAN (Chicago and London, University of Chicago Press 2014). Pp. xviii + 258, figs. 64. ISBN-13: 978-0-226-09698-8. ISBN-10: 0-226-09698-X.

1 Carandini , A. , Giornale di scavo: pensieri sparsi di un archeologo ( Turin 2000 ) 43 Google Scholar : “Non è facile … misurarsi con i grandi uomini, le grandi idee, i grandi fatti e i grandi raccontatori che vivono racchiusi in quello splendido palazzo che si chiama Storia. … quando cerco di penetrare nel palazzo, dalla porta di servizio, mi sento in qualche modo un abusivo”.

2 Carandini , A. and Greco , E. , “ Carattere del Workshop ,” Workshop di Archeologia Classica 1 ( 2014 ) 11 Google Scholar : “Non esistono più porte principali e porte di servizio per entrare nel regno di sapere e della storia …”.

3 Finley , M. I. , “ The Trojan War ,” JHS 84 ( 1964 ) 2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar .

4 Hall chapt. 7 see now Ampolo , C. , “ Il problema delle origini di Roma rivisitato: concordismo, ipertradizionalismo acritico, contesti. I ,” AnnPisa ser. 5, 5 . 1 ( 2013 ) 217 –84Google Scholar .

5 Knight , W. F. Jackson , “ Aeneas and history ,” G&R 6 ( 1937 ) 71 Google Scholar .

6 Henige , D. , “ Impossible to disprove yet impossible to believe: the unforgiving epistemology of deeptime oral tradition ,” History in Africa 36 ( 2009 ) 201 and 232 CrossRefGoogle Scholar .

7 Cf. Wiseman , T. P. , “ Where was the Porta Romanula? ,” PBSR 75 ( 2007 ) 236 Google Scholar .

8 Tomei , M. A. , Domus Tiberiana: scavi e restauri 1990-2011 ( Milan 2011 ) 61 – 62 Google Scholar and Tav. A (52 m asl) for the evidence on the Nova Via, see Wiseman , T. P. , “ Where was the Nova Via? ,” PBSR 72 ( 2004 ) 167 –83Google Scholar .

9 Finley , M. I. , Ancient history: evidence and models ( London 1985 ) 21 Google Scholar .

10 Ibid. 112 n.40, citing F. Coarelli, “Public building at Rome between the Second Punic War and Sulla,” PBSR 45 (1977) 1-2.

11 Suet., Aug. 72.1 and 3: habitavit primo iuxta Romanum forum supra scalas anularias in domo quae Calvi oratoris fuerat postea in Palatio, sed nihilo minus aedibus modicis Hortensianis, et neque laxitate neque cultu conspicuis, ut in quibus porticus breves essent Albanarum columnarum et sine marmore ullo aut insigni pavimento conclavia. ac per annos amplius quadraginta eodem cubiculo hieme et aestate mansit, quamvis parum salubrem valitudini suae urbem hieme experiretur assidueque in urbe hiemaret. … ampla et operosa praetoria gravabatur.


From Virgil to Vitruvius: some thoughts on the House of Augustus.

This year is a big anniversary for all things Augustus the two thousandth anniversary of the death of the first Emperor of Rome.

The exploitation of art, religion, legend, history, poetry, dodgy family trees, you name it, in the relentlessly sophisticated propaganda machine of Octavian/Augustus is something I’ve always found incredibly interesting.

It was Octavian’s close friend Maecenas who sponsored Virgil whose epic poem, the Aeneid, detailed the heroic journey made by Aeneas, son of Venus, following the Achaean destruction of the city of Troy. Aeneas’ long and meandering journey across the Mediterranean knowingly echoed the voyage of Ulysses, and eventually he arrived on the western coast of central Italy. It is said that he landed a few miles south of the arrival point of many modern visitors, the wildly unromantic Fiumicino Airport. Aeneas had long been claimed as the distant (and divine) ancestor not only of Romulus, legendary founder of Rome, but also of the Julii, the family of both Caesar and Octavian.

Contemporaneously, Titus Livy wrote his Ab Urbe Condita Libri (Books from the Foundation of the City), a history of Rome which knitted the legends of the founding of the city together into a narrative which ran up until Livy’s own time, culminating in the inevitability of the rise of the “Golden Age” of Augustus.

In the works of Virgil and Livy, poetry and history distill legend. All roads lead to a justification of the inexorable and divine right to rule of Caesar’s heir, and they are the great spin-doctors of their time large cogs in the powerful machine of Augustan propaganda.

Geography was also to become an integral part of this programme. Throughout the centuries of the Republic, the Palatine hill had been the smart part of town, and indeed aristocratic Octavian had been born on its slopes.

According to Suetonius, writing a century or so after Octavian was first proclaimed Augustus,

“… [Octavian] lived at first near the Forum Romanum, above the stairs of the ring-makers, in a house which had once belonged to the orator Calvus…” [Suetonius, Divus Augustus, LXXII/LXXIII]

Presumably this house was not high enough on the slopes of the hill to be referred to as in Palatio. Suetonius continues, however, telling us that

“…afterwards [he lived] on the Palatine, but in the no less modest dwelling of Hortensius, which was remarkable neither for size nor elegance…”

This house had been confiscated in the wake of the Battle of Philippi (42 BC), in which Hortensius’ son had allied with Brutus. It may have been relatively modest, but its postition was not Octavian now lived close to the site which was held to be the site of Rome’s very foundation, the Roma Quadrata of Romulus.

View today from the Palatine Hill, looking towards the Capitoline

Around the time of Sextus Pompey’s defeat off the coast of Sicily at Naulochus, in September of 36 BC, work began on a new domus befitting Octavian’s rising status.

According to Cassius Dio, two centuries later,

“…The people at this time resolved that a house should be presented to Caesar at public expense for he had made public property of the place on the Palatine which he had bought for the purpose of erecting a residence upon it, and had consecrated it to Apollo, after a thunderbolt had descended upon it. …”

Thus the Palatine began its shift from residential district to seat of power. The lines between religion and state began to blur Apollo, protector of Troy and so of the Julii was to be venerated on the very site of Octavian’s residence. Vowed after the Battle of Naulochus, the temple was dedicated in 28 BC, after Octavian’s definitive victory at Actium (31 BC) over Mark Antony and Cleopatra. A year later he would be proclaimed Augustus.

Painted decoration with architectural motifs in the “House of Augustus”

The divinity pervading Augustus’ palace (named for the hill on which it stood) is referred to by Augustus’ contemporary Ovid. In his mournful Tristia, written from his exile in the distant and bleak land of Tomis (on the Black Sea coast of modern-day Romania), a homesick and repentant Ovid imagines his book making a voyage to Rome, and being shown the sights of the city:

“Gazing around, I saw prominent doorposts hung

with gleaming weapons, and a house fit for a god.

‘And is this Jove’s house?’ I said, a wreath of oak

prompting that thought in my mind.

When I learnt its owner, ‘No error there,’ I said,

this is truly the house of mighty Jove’

But why do laurels veil the door in front,

their dark leaves circling the august ones?

Is it because this house earned unending triumph,

or because it’s loved by Apollo of Actium forever?

Is it because it’s joyful, and makes all things joyful?

Is it a mark of the peace it’s given the world?

Does it possess everlasting glory, as the laurel

is evergreen, without a single withered leaf to gather?”

In the 1960s excavations discovered several painted rooms, believed to be part of this House of Augustus. Richly painted by extremely skilled artists, they are, however, lacking in the bling of applied exotic stones which were to be found in the palaces of later emperors.

Painted decorations at the “House of Augustus”

Presumably it is this contrast which Suetonius has in mind when he speaks of the house’s modest decorations:

“The simplicity of his furniture and household goods may be seen from couches and tables still in existence, many of which are scarcely fine enough for a private citizen. They say that he always slept on a low and plainly furnished bed.” [Suetonius, LXXIII]

Indeed Suetonius’ insistence of the humble nature of Augustus’ residence is somewhat belied by calculations that the residence covered an area of some 25,000 sq m (92,000 sq ft).

There is a room which he mentions which has, tantalisingly if spuriously, been identified with one visible today. This is the room known as the “Emperor’s Study”, today visible (when the wildly variable opening hours of this side of the site permit) by climbing a modern steel staircase and peering through the glass opening which protects the room from humidity and our breath.

Upper cubiculum, “House of Augustus”.

“If ever he planned to do anything in private or without interruption, he had a retired place at the top of the house, which he called “Syracuse” and “technyphion.”

“Syracuse” is perhaps a reference to the study of Archimedes in that city, “technyphion” a diminutive of the Greek meaning “workshop”.

Of the rooms which are today accessible this has the most refined and elegant decoration, clearly influenced by Alexandria with stylized obelisks, gryphons, and sophisticated interweavings of vegetal elements and the architectonic.

Upper cubiculum, House of Augustus, detail

This last element is just the sort of thing which angered Augustus’ architect Vitruvius enormously. In his Ten Books of Architecture he described the stage set painted by Apaturius of Alabanda for the theatre of Tralles in Lydia. The replacement of architectural elements with vegetation incited the wrath of the mathematician Licymnius who had ordered that it be repainted, incapable as it was of supporting any in the face of similar modishly Eastern decoration poor pragmatic Vitruvius grumbled,

“Would to God that Licymnius could come to life again and reform the present condition of folly and mistaken practices in fresco painting!” [Vitruvius VII]

His laments were to go ignored, and Roman painting would become ever more fanciful throughout the first century.

A visit to the House of Augustus can be included, upon request, in my “Heart of Ancient Rome” itinerary, where opening hours permit.


Hanover

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

Hanover, German Hannover, former state of northwestern Germany, first an electorate (1692–1806) of the Holy Roman Empire, then a kingdom (1814–66), and finally a Prussian province (1866–1945). After World War II the state was administratively abolished its former territory formed about 80 percent of the Land (state) of Lower Saxony.

Hanover grew out of the early 17th-century division of territories of the Welf house of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Created in 1638 as the principality of Brunswick-Calenberg-Göttingen, it came to be named after its principal town, Hanover. Ernest Augustus I (1630–98), duke from 1680, united the principality with that of Lüneburg, marrying his son George Louis to Sophia Dorothea of Celle, only daughter of George William, duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg upon the latter’s death in 1705 the two states were formally joined. Ernest Augustus in 1692 had obtained from the Holy Roman emperor Leopold I the designation of his principality as the ninth electorate of the empire, called officially Brunswick-Lüneburg but commonly Hanover.

Ernest Augustus had married Sophia of the Palatinate, granddaughter of James I of Great Britain. The British Act of Settlement (1701) designated her heiress of the British crown after Queen Anne, but, because Sophia died shortly before Anne in 1714, her son George Louis succeeded as George I, the first of five monarchs of the house of Hanover to rule both Hanover and Great Britain. The court of the electress Sophia had been a cultural centre, embellished especially by George Frideric Handel and G.W. Leibniz. George I (d. 1727) and George II (d. 1760) frequently visited their homeland but George III (d. 1820) never did so, and George IV (d. 1830) and William IV (d. 1837) did so only once each. The electorate was ruled well in their absence by a ministry in Hanover, associated with the German chancellery in London.

Hanover was expanded to the North Sea by the addition of Bremen and Verden in 1715 and the bishopric of Osnabrück in 1803. Called Britain’s “Achilles’ heel” in continental Europe, Hanover suffered invasions during Britain’s wars, especially during the Seven Years’ War (1756–63) and the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars from 1793. The Prussians seized it in 1801 and 1805 and the French in 1803 and 1806, after which part of it was incorporated into the French empire and the rest into the Kingdom of Westphalia, created by Napoleon I for his brother Jérôme Bonaparte. After the fall of Napoleon in 1814, Hanover was reconstituted as a kingdom largely because of British influence and acquired Hildesheim, Eichsfeld, East Frisia, Bentheim, Lingen, and Emsland. It was the fourth largest German state after Austria, Prussia, and Bavaria. The constitution imposed on Hanover by George IV in 1819 did little to alter the nobles’ domination of the state, and only after a rising in 1830 did William IV (in 1833) grant a new charter extending political power to the middle class and (to a minor extent) to the peasantry and submitting state finances and royal revenues to parliamentary control.

The death of William IV on June 20, 1837, terminated the personal union between Great Britain and Hanover. Because of the Hanoverian law prohibiting female succession if there was a male heir, Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland (1771–1851) and brother of William IV, became king of Hanover upon William’s death, while William’s niece Victoria succeeded to the British throne. A reactionary, Ernest Augustus overthrew the Hanoverian constitution, but the revolution of 1848–49 forced him to grant a new one. In 1851 Hanover joined the German Customs Union (Zollverein).

George V (1819–78), blind from the age of 14, became king on his father’s death in 1851. The rise of Prussia undid his kingdom: he tried to remain neutral in the Seven Weeks’ War in 1866 between Austria and Prussia but was driven from Hanover by Prussian forces. The kingdom was then annexed by Prussia (Sept. 20, 1866) and accorded limited self-government. The German Hanoverian party continued to demand a separate status for Hanover in the Reichstag throughout the period of the German Empire (1871–1918), but Hanover remained part of Prussia until 1945.

Hanover was briefly reestablished as a state in August 1946, but on November 1 of that year it was united with Oldenburg, Brunswick, and Schaumburg-Lippe to form the Land (state) of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen). The name Hannover now applies to a district within that state.


Sarasota's Historic Wilson House

What used to be tucked away on the southeast corner of Ringling Boulevard and South Orange Avenue was a small unassuming house that rested in the shadow of the restored Federal Building. When the home was purchased in 1907, as a residence for Dr. Cullen Bryant &ldquoC.B.&rdquo Wilson and his wife Fannie, the Federal Building did not yet exist among the scattered residences of South Orange Avenue. Today, Regions Bank stands in the location of the Wilson house, after it was moved to Urfer Park at 4012 Honore Avenue near where Bee Ridge Road and Honore intersects. On November 13 th of this year Sarasota County will host its grand opening to celebrate its place in our history.

The house was constructed in 1906 and quite likely designed by architect Edgar Ferdonk who was practicing in Sarasota in the early part of the 20 th century. The building was enlarged in 1913 with a roof top addition to create a full second story which according to family members was used to house seriously ill patients. When the second story was added to the building, the chimneys at each end of the structure were retained but mostly enclosed within the second story. Today, only one chimney is visible on the north side of the house.

The house is notable for its long association with the Wilson family and use of pressed stone, a precursor to today's concrete block. Pressed stone, sometimes called rusticated block, was frequently manufactured on-site with portable molds. Although this material is evident in a number of early Sarasota homes, the stone on the Wilson house is unique for its larger size.

Dr. Wilson was a lifetime resident of Sarasota, born in 1878 in old Miakka, the son of state senator Augustus Wilson and Callie Crum Wilson. Augustus Wilson moved to Old Miakka in 1877 from Polk County. After his arrival he served as the first postmaster in what is now Sarasota County, as well as an Indian Agent for the State of Florida. Perhaps most significant, Augustus Wilson was the Florida Senator who introduced the bill to create Sarasota County in 1921.

Dr. Wilson was educated at the Florida Military Institute, the University of Florida and the University of Alabama Medical School. He married Fannie Reaves, daughter of C.L. and Martha Tatum Reaves of Fruitville in 1904 and began his medical practice in Sarasota in 1906, one of the first physicians to practice in the area. He served on the board of Sarasota Memorial Hospital from the time of its founding in 1924 to the time of his death in 1941.

An article in the Sarasota Herald-Tribune in February of 1941 at the time of his death described Wilson as a man and as a physician who &ldquoenjoyed the respect and confidence of everyone.&rdquo The article continued by stating that &ldquothe old time family doctor held in high esteem and today largely cherished as a memory was exemplified in his practice of medicine.&rdquo His son, Dr. Reave Wilson continued the family's medical practice after World War II.

The house ended up at a crossroads, since it was located on a site slated for development. A successful appeal was made for its preservation to the City of Sarasota Planning Board and the Historic Preservation Board by Wilson family member and local attorney, Clyde H. Wilson, Jr. who also enlisted the assistance of the Sarasota Alliance for Historic Preservation. The soon-to-be-opened house is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.


Watch the video: House of Augustus u0026 House of Livia, 3D mapping Roman ForumPalatine Hill