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The Aichi E12A was a two-seat twin-float reconnaissance floatplane designed in response to a Japanese Navy 12-Shi specification issued in 1937 for an aircraft to replace the Kawanishi E7K2 three-seat reconnaissance seaplane. The specification was issued to Aichi, Kawanishi and Nakajima, but before the prototypes had been completed a second 12-Shi specification was issued, calling for a three-seat floatplane, to be developed alongside the two seat model.
Only Aichi decided to develop both aircraft, producing prototypes of both the E12A and E13A. Kawanishi concentrated on the three seat version, producing the E13K, while Nakajima focused on their two-seat E12N.
The E12A was a single engined monoplane floatplane, powered by a 870hp Mitsubishi Zuisei radial engine. The two crewmen sat in tandem in a single cockpit. The aircraft was very similar to the E13A, which was simply a larger version of the same design, with a more powerful engine.
The prototype E12As and E13As were both ready at the end of 1938. Aichi’s own tests showed that the larger but more powerful aircraft was faster and more stable in flight. By 1939 the Japanese Navy had also decided that it preferred the three seat designs, and so work on the E12A (and on the E12N) was suspended. Competitive tests of the Aichi E13A and Kawanishi E13K followed, and in December 1940 the Aichi design was declared the winner, entering production as the Navy Type 0 Reconnaissance Seaplane Model 1.
The Aichi E13A (Allied reporting name: "Jake") was a long-range reconnaissance seaplane used by the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) from 1941 to 1945. Numerically the most important floatplane of the IJN, it could carry a crew of three and a bombload of 250 kg (550 lb). The Navy designation was "Navy Type Zero Reconnaissance Seaplane" (零式水上偵察機).
|E13A1 in flight|
|Manufacturer||Aichi Kokuki KK|
|First flight||mid-late 1939|
|Primary users||Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service|
Royal Thai Navy
Command of the imperial navy air force (海軍航空本部 Kaigun Kōkū Hombu) in July 1937, drew up the specification 12-Shi, these specifications should be tasked to inform the supplier of aviation equipment for the new needs of naval aviation, an integral part of these specifications were the technical requirements that manufacturers must meet, or be predicted that it will come true. Specification 12-Shi demanded Kaigun Kōkū Hombu, outside other categories of aircraft, also float reconnaissance aircraft, which should replace the currently produced float reconnaissance dvouplošné aircraft Kawanishi E7K1. The navy was required dvouplovákový monoplane in two-seater configuration, and despite the fact that the E7K1 was a three-digit, the aircraft should be able to perform reconnaissance or surveillance tasks, but at the same time should be able to even dive bombing.
Command naval air force specification 12-Shi subpoenaed three companies and all three immediately begun work on the projects. The company 愛知航空機株式会社 - Aichi Tokei Denki Seizo Kabushiki Kaisha (hereinafter referred to as Aichi) presented its project of AM-18, the navy designated as the E12A1 12-Shi and the order of the maritime commission agreed to build two prototypes. Another company was 川西航空機株式会社 – Kawanishi Kōkūki Kabushiki Kaisha (hereinafter referred to as Kawanishi), the presented project E12K1 12-Shi and began with the preparation for the construction of two prototypes and, finally, the third manufacturer - 中島飛行機株式会社 - Nakajima Hikōki Kabushiki Kaisha (hereinafter referred to as Nakajima), there were built two very good looking prototypes of the marked E12N1 12-Shi. Prototypes should be zalétány either the end of the year 1937 or at the beginning of the following year. At the end of 1937, however, the game enters Kaigun Kōkū Hombu and quite fundamentally regulates the technical requirements for this category of aircraft. The newly required aircraft with trojčlennou crew and with larger dimensions.
With such a modification of the requirements to air of the factory offset completely differently, Aichi completed two prototypes E12A1 and in parallel, according to the established requirements, has built two three-digit aircraft E13A1 12-Shi. The three-digit aircraft looked like larger copies of the two-seater, but in reality, it was a completely new design. The company Kawanishi stopped preparatory work on the construction of the two-seater machines and built two prototypes according to the established requirements, these machines have been labeled as E13K1 12-Shi and participated in the competition together with E13A1. The company Nakajima completed two two-seat prototypes E12N1, other work stopped and the three-digit reconnaissance machines so even oppose it.
The first take-off prototypes Aichi was held in November (E12A1 12-Shi) and in December (E13A1 12-Shi) 1938, followed by factory tests and the removal of the identified childhood diseases. Already during the factory trials it was found that the larger three-digit aircraft have better flight characteristics and they are also slightly more powerful thanks to engines with more power. The aircraft was in the following year handed over to the navy and commenced sea trials, also here it was confirmed that the navy change its requirements has gained more valuable aircraft. The contest itself was launched at the beginning of the year 1940 and was attended by only three-digit types E13A1 and E13K1, the aircraft company Aichi was found better and was declared the winner of the competition.
Aircraft Aichi E13A1 adopted the Kaigun Kōkū Hombu as a "recon seaplane, type 0 model 1" (japanese 零式水上偵察機 - rei-shiki suijō teisatsuki), I am reminded that the japanese naval air force nerozdělovalo float planes and seaplanes. The winning aircraft featured a fairly elegant all-metal low-wing with dvounosníkovým wing, the surface was metal, only the control surfaces were covered with canvas. The hull was formed of all-metal shell, on his back was a long glassed-in cabin, it was common for the whole trojčlennou crew. The wing should the external parts of the elliptical space between the two spars and the leading edge of the wings, the designers filled the fuel tanks, unfortunately, the tanks were not self-locking and no fire equipment was not installed. Drive catered to the čtrnáctiválec Mitsubishi Kinsei 43 and trojlistá propeller with an adjustable angle of attack. The aircraft took flight and landed on water using two floats. Between the floats under the fuselage it was possible to hang up a mountain lion weighing 250 kg, or four depth charges, each weighing 60 kg. Shooter had a post at the end of the long cabin and he could from his position the aircraft to defend one gun the type 92 the caliber of 7.7 mm. The production of this basic version ran almost without change until November 1944, when the production received a slightly enhanced version of the marked E13A1a, the improvements touched the installation of the new radios and it was further modified float system - a experienced fewer wire reinforcement, this version was in production, soon followed by next versions of E13A1b. This aircraft carried on the leading edges of the wings and in the back behind the cab on both sides of the antenna type Yagi, the aircraft was equipped with the first three of these sites to search for surface targets. A few dozen aircraft were fitted with a magnetic anomaly detector Jikitanchiki, this detector could detect submerged enemy submarine up to a depth of twelve metres, the aircraft however, could not exceed the desetimetrovou the height of the flight. From these versions, there were two more varanty marked E13A1a-S and E13A1b-With, these machines have been designed for night flying, the adjustment concerned the apparently only installed the damper the flames. Follow-on training crews of floating aircraft helped improve several dozen factory modified two-seat aircraft E13A1-K. With regard to the fact that the production provided a total of three manufacturers, the Aichi production was terminated in 1942, the further into the production involved naval arsenal in Hiru (広海軍工廠 - Hiro Kaigun Kōshō (Hiroshō) and most of the aircraft were made by a company 九州飛行機株式会社 - Kyūshū Hikōki Kabushiki Kaisha in Zusshonokumě, here are these aircraft were produced until 1945 and a total of were produced 1 418 aircraft of this type. Made planes mutually different exhaust system. Machines manufactured by Aichi had a mostly ring-shaped pantograph of the exhaust gas and vice versa later made aircraft in Kyushu, were in the vast majority of individual exhaust pipes. The exhausts, however, were not the distinguishing sign between the different versions. The last-produced version became E13A1c, according to some sources, it was only the adjustment resulting in field workshops. The truth will be probably somewhere in the middle - a shop treatment apparently also introduced by the factory on the production line. This modified aircraft was in the floor of the hatch, which could be guided by the firing of movably stored cannon the type 99 model 2 on the ship's target or submarine. Such an attack was apparently successful in particular to fast american boats, PT (Patrol Torpedo).
The combat career of this aircraft in the fall of 1941 in China, only a few planes launched from the heavy cruisers and carriers, seaplanes, and attacked bombs on an important railway artery between the cities of Guangzhou and Hanka (today, Wu-chang). Another major task was aerial reconnaissance of the Hawaiian islands before the japanese attack on Pearl Habor, these reconnaissance flights were carried out osádkami aircraft E13A1 belonging to the cruisers 8. division (Tone, Chikuma and Kinugasa). After the outbreak of war these aircraft were delivered to all the battlefield, where operated the navy, the Japanese them unofficially called Reisú, the allied intelligence service them assigned code name Jake. In the initial part of the pacific war, when they had the Japanese superiority in the air, was the deployment of these aircraft quite successful, but over time, as american troops received more effective armament, in proportion to the increased loss of these planes, a hit to the fuel tanks, which were without any protection often led to the destruction of the aircraft. Reisú were often deployed not only to attacks on shipping, or against submarines, but also to attack ground targets, when the final battles attacked the allied ships suicide attack by the kamikaze.
Aichi E12A - History
Under and prior to Japan’s historical Ritsuryo political system, Aichi was divided into three regions called Owari (the Kiso River and Shonai River region), Mikawa (the western Mikawa and Yahagi River region), and Ho (the eastern Mikawa and Toyo River region). However, after the Taika Reforms of the 7th century, it was reorganized as two provinces, Owari and Mikawa, and continued this way up to the Edo period.
In 1871, following the abolition of the Han System, Owari (with the exception of the Chita District) became Nagoya Prefecture, and Mikawa merged with the Chita District to form Nukata Prefecture. In April, 1872, Nagoya Prefecture was renamed Aichi Prefecture, and on November 27 of the same year, Nukata Prefecture was abolished, with jurisdiction of the area handed over to Aichi. Thus, the long independent provinces of Owari and Mikawa united as Aichi Prefecture.
At the time of its founding, Aichi consisted of more than 2,900 towns and villages, but by 1970, following many mergers in the Meiji and Showa periods, Aichi was left with only 88 municipalities. For the next 30 or so years, the number of Aichi municipalities did not change, but 16 more mergers took place in 2003 as part of the great Heisei mergers, so that as of October 1, 2009, the municipalities of Aichi number 60 (35 cities, 23 towns, and 2 villages).
The Origin of the Name “Aichi”
The name “Aichi” is said to come from a poem that was composed by the poet Takechi Kurohito and included in the third volume of the Man'yoshu (“Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves”), a famous Japanese poetic anthology. The poem translated reads:
The cry of a crane, Calling to Sakurada, It sounds like the tide, Draining from Ayuchi Flats, Hearing the cry of the crane.
“Ayuchi” eventually turned into “Aichi” and was adopted as the name of the local district. After the abolition of the Han System, the prefectural government was established at Nagoya Castle in Aichi District, and the name of the district was adopted as the name of the new prefecture.
3-1-2 Sannomaru, Naka-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 460-8501
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Conversion of Zhejiang Aichi Mechanical & Electrical CO., LTD. into a consolidated subsidiary.
Use of newly developed stainless steel "AUS305-H2" in high-pressure hydrogen applications for new fuel cell automobile "MIRAI."
Reduction of CO2 by converting and using exhaust heat energy of electric furnace (first in Japan).
Completion of No. 2 power card lead frame production line at Gifu Plant.
Construction on the new Ai-Terrace welfare building completed. Opened to the staff and public.
Started supply of MAGFINE ® Dy-free bonded magnets for drone motor use.
World’s first successful practical demonstration of a heat storage system using a calcium-based material
Installation of hot rolling mill line for ring gears completed in anticipation of global expansion.
Construction completed on a new [steel furnace] as a strategic investment for next generation reduced CO2 emissions vehicles
Construction completed for new administration building
Joint development with Mizuno of an Internal Baseball Sensor Module applying MI sensor
Completes new power card lead frame production line at Gifu Plant
Completed new main building. Start of operations at main building.
Adopted Company System management structure
Automated Driving Demonstration Testing Starts for a Magnetic Marker System Using the Ultra-Sensitive MI sensor
Joint development with NHK SPRING Co.,LTD. of High Strength Leaf Spring Steel for Tracks to improve fuel effeciency
Operation of the CVT hot-forging press line, a world-class high-speed automatic forging machine
Commercialized Dy-free bonded MAGFINE ® magnets using innovative integrated injection molding method
Began sales of ASCON ® -CD6 small diameter stainless steel reinforcing bar in order to expand product lineup of stainless steel reinforcing bars
Start of Production of Metallic Fiber (Amorphous Wire)
Joint development with OAT Agrio Co., Ltd. to develop TetsuRiki-TrePlus liquid compound fertilizer with trace elements
Completed acquisition of metallic fibers business from Unitika Ltd.
Achieved monolithic extrusion forming technology for MAGFINE ® Dy-free bonded magnets
Steel for high-strength control rods adopted for the new turbo engine the Toyota Auris
Start of provision of home gardening fertilizer to Earth Chemical Co.,Ltd.
Stainless steel "AUS316L-H2" for high-pressure hydrogen applications used for fuel cell automobile "MIRAI."
Start of sales of magnetic field simulator PalmGauss S for MI sensors and start of sales of MAGFIT MIP material for implants
Established a 4500 ton press for forging crankshafts at our head office forging plant and forging subsidiary (AFT)
Adopted our Executive Director system
Completed repairs around the front gate of the Kariya Plant
Brought the high-strength and alloyings-saving steel, MSB20, to market
Newly established mass production equipment for high strength abrasive AS shot ®
Development and sales of stainless steel for high pressure hydrogen “AUS316L-H2”
Established Aichi Magfine Technology (Pinghu) Co., Ltd.
AICHI FORGE (THAILAND) CO., LTD. moved to Pinthong
Brought small diameter stainless steel reinforcing bar ASCON ® -D4 to market
Development of magnet production technology using MAGFINE ® powder with 30% less alloy
Brought TetsuRiki Aqua F14 to market with Sakata Seed Corp.Completed
The No. 3 Bloom Continuous Casting Machine
Start of operations at Seki Plant
Established the Silicon Valley Office in the USA
Established AICHI Korea Corporation in Korea
Development of AMI306 compass for smartphones
Development of new Dy-free MAGFINE ® powder
Aichi USA, Inc merged with Louisville Forge and Gearworks LLC and changed names to Aichi Forge USA, Inc.
Established AMIT Inc. in Taipei, Taiwan
(Liquidation completed in March 2019)
Development of navigation technology for underground markets designed for smartphones using 6-axis motion sensors
Established Aichi Magfine Czech s.r.o in Libelec, Czech Republic
Brought TetsuRiki Agri Super Great and TetsuRiki Agri F10 to market
Brought AS shot ® abrasive to market
Established briquetting equipment for recycled nickel material
Completed installation of small/medium precision facility
Start of operations at the No. 7 Forging shop
Made Aichi Techno Metal Fukaumi Co., ltd. a subsidiary
Development of highly sensitive MI sensor able to detect nano-Tesla magnetic fields
Development of TetsuRiki Agri B10/C10 designed for alkaline soils
Development of ANRP slag recycling
Technology Brought G 2 (“G-squared”) to market, the world’s smallest motion sensor for motion control
Start of operations at Gifu Plant
Established P.T. Aichi Forging Indonesia in Jakarta, Indonesia
Development of ASTA, a new titanium alloy
Brought MAGFIT DX and MAGFIT IP dental magnetic attachments to market
Brought TetsuRiki Agri with Iron ions to market
Established Shanghai Aichi Forging Co., Ltd. as a joint venture in Shanghai, China
Established Asdex Corporation as a forging mold machining business
Established AICHI FORGE (THAILAND) CO., LTD.
Brought ScreenBar Stainless steel shapes to market
Brought MAGFINE ® 25 and MAGFINE ® 21H to market, powerful heat-resistant Anisotropic Nd-Fe-B resin bonded magnet for automobiles
Development of ECOSCUT Steel, lead free cutting steel
Brought SUSCON ® to market, Stainless steel bars for concrete reinforcement
Created a lineup of small stainless rolled steel H-shape
Established mass production system for Anisotropic Nd-Fe-B resin bonded magnet magnetic powder
Development of the high sensitivity amorphous MI (magnetic impedance) sensor
Established Aichi Micro Intelligent Corporation (Dissolved in June 2020)
Established Aichi Europe GmbH
Opening of the Hall of Forging Technology Museum
Brought MAGFINE ® 18/20 to market, Anisotropic Nd-Fe-B resin bonded magnet
Added AICHI CERATEC CORPORATION as a consolidated subsidiary
Development of strong crank shafts
Development of ACUTO440 stainless steel for blades
Completion of ISO14001 certification of all plants (Chita, Kariya, Forging, Higashiura)
Completion of ISO9000 certification of all plants (Chita, Kariya, Forging, Higashiura)
Made OMI MINING CO., LTD. a subsidiary
Brought APTY titanium putter to market
Established forging joint venture in Kentucky, USA (Louisville Forge and Gearworks LLC 100% subsidiary from 1999)
Established Aichi Forge USA, Inc. in Kentucky, USA
Development and application of new acid bath technology for stainless steel
Brought construction stainless steel to market
Brought MAGFINE ® 17 to market, Anisotropic Nd-Fe-B resin bonded magnet
Development of the steelmaking dust recycling technology
Made Philippine forging company a subsidiary (AICHI FORGE PHILIPPINES, INC.)
Development of high strength control rods
Start of cold work forging production
Development of high strength, high toughness bainite steel
Start of operations at Higashiura Plant
Made Aichi Steel Logistics co., ltd. a subsidiary
Development of rapid carburizing steel
Received a special PM award for excellent workplace
Brought MAGFIT600 dental magnetic attachments to market
Start of operation of the hot former (rapid forging) line
Received the Ishikawa Award
Established Aichi Information System Corporation
Completed the 50 ton furnace multiple steel making process (EF-AR-LD-BT/CC)
Start of operation of No 2 Bar Mill Shop
Development of 3D cut steel, mass production for crank shafts
Brought titanium shaped materials to market
Start of operation of formed stainless steel line
Received the Deming Prize
Established AIKO SERVICE CO., LTD.
Start of operation of billet continuous casting equipment (BT/CC)
Joint development with partner manufacturers of long-lasting, high-quality bearing steel
Start of operations at the No. 2 Melting shop
Start of operations for new steelmaking facilities (80 ton EF-LF-RH-BL/CC)
Development of the multiple steelmaking process technology
Received a PM award for excellent workplace
Development of untempered steel, mass production for crank shafts
Start of operation of 6,000 ton forging press
Start of operations at Electronic Maticial shop
Start of operations at Forging shop
Brought stainless steel rolled angle bars to market
Made AIKO CORPORATION a subsidiary
Changed name to Aichi Steel Corporation
Start of operations at Chita Plant
Steel section spun off to establish Toyota Steel Works,Ltd (in today’s Tokai City)
Establishment of steelmaking division at Toyoda Automatic Loom Works (today’s Toyota Industries Corporation)
Nel giugno 1937 la Marina imperiale giapponese emise una specifica, indicata come 12-Shi, per la fornitura di un nuovo velivolo atto a sostituire l'idroricognitore imbarcato Kawanishi E7K allora in servizio nella Dai-Nippon Teikoku Kaigun Kōkū Hombu, la sua componente aerea. Il nuovo modello, che doveva essere fornito in due prototipi per le prove di valutazione, tra le altre caratteristiche doveva essere in grado di essere lanciato tramite catapulta.  A questa esigenza risposero la Aichi, la Kawanishi Kōkūki e la Nakajima Hikōki. Dopo qualche mese la Marina imperiale emise un'altra specifica simile alla prima, ma per un pari ruolo triposto.
La Aichi affidò lo sviluppo di un modello adatto allo scopo all'ingegnere Yoshishiro Matsuo, diventato da poco progettista capo dell'azienda, che con la collaborazione di Morishige Mori e Yasunori Ozawa disegnò un velivolo dall'impostazione, per lo standard mondiale, moderna, un monoplano con ala bassa a sbalzo di costruzione interamente metallica. 
Le fasi preliminari del progetto si svolsero dal settembre 1937 al febbraio 1938, con i due prototipi completati prima del termine dell'anno. 
Alla valutazione finale parteciparono con i propri prototipi solo la Aichi e la Nakajima, dato che nel frattempo la Kawanishi decise di abbandonare il concorso per dedicarsi unicamente allo sviluppo del triposto. Valutato dal personale della marina con il concorrente Nakajima E12N, benché le prove avessero rivelato buone prestazioni generali all'E12A, la marina gli preferì la proposta della Nakajima. 
Aichi E13A (Jake)
Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 11/10/2017 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site.
Based on number alone, the Aichi production E13A series of floatplanes (dubbed "Jake" by the Allies) was the most important such aircraft type for the Japanese Navy during the Second World War. The system was fielded in quantity in the early 1940's and were charged with reconnoitering the American Navy based at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, prior to the infamous December 7th attack. A tremendous design with durability and endurance to boot, the E13A would serve through the end of the war, notoriously in Kamikaze attacks on advancing American naval convoys.
The E13A was a three-crew low-monoplane aircraft with pontoons fitted in place of traditional landing gear systems. The initial need for the floatplane stemmed from a Japanese naval requirement for a new floatplane to replace the aging Kawanishi E7K2 series. As such, offers to the Aichi, Kawanishi and Nakajima aircraft firms were made to promote a competitive trial. At the end, only a Aichi and Kawanishi design remained, with the Aichi design getting the go ahead. A prototype was then produced and ordered into production after 1940.
Though limited in number at first, the E13A series made some initial carrier-based land-strikes and reconnaissance missions that promoted the use of this aircraft type. As such, the floatplane would be fielded regularly with future cruiser groups and mounted to catapults on Japanese battleships. Standard armament would consist of 1 x 20mm downward-firing cannon and a single 7.7mm machine gun in the rear cockpit. External stores were limited to a single 551lb bomb or depth charge as needed.
Aichi "Jakes" were utilized more importantly for their reconnaissance initiative than their strike capability (limited as they were in that respect). Reconnoiter missions would include the scouting of Pearl Harbor and the famous miscommunication reconnoiter mission for American battle groups in the early rounds of the Battle of Midway, leaving many carrier-based attack aircraft ready for action on the Japanese carrier decks, but waiting for the reconnaissance reports to come in.
The Aichi E13A would serve through to the end of the war, though limited with each passing month by the power of the new generation of American carrier-based fighters and the ever-advancing American forces. "Jakes", as other aircraft of this type, would later be relegated to Kamikaze attacks on American ships in the hopes of damaging psyche and disrupting supplies and combat capabilities. In the end, the masterful aircraft would be highly regarded as the best floatplane that Japan could field and the 1,418 such production models would attest to that.
Aichi Prefecture in Japan – Culture, History, Sightseeing and More
Aichi Prefecture is located approximately in the center of the Japanese archipelago. The prefecture adjoins four prefectures: Mie, Gifu, Nagano, and Shizuoka prefecture. South of Aichi prefecture is the Pacific Ocean, and from the south coast, you can see Ise Bay and Mikawa Bay. Aichi Prefecture ranks 27th in terms of size, occupying 1.4% of the country’s total area of 5,164.57 km 2.
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The west is formed by the Nobi Plain, a plain created by the Kiso River and the second largest plain in Japan, and by the Owari mountainous region to the east. Furthermore, the mountainous region of Owari extends to the south of the prefecture, shaping the Chita peninsula. The Yahagi River flows through central Aichi.
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At the top of the river are the Mikawa Mountains, and at the bottom of the river is the Okazaki Plain. In the eastern part of the prefecture, the Toyogawa River flows in its upper part are the mountains of Shitara and Yana-Yumihari. At the bottom of the river is the Toyohashi Plain. The Toyohashi Plain extends to the Atsumi Peninsula.
Nowadays, Nagoya is the capital of Aichi Prefecture, one of Japan’s most economically dynamic regions. The city is home to major international companies such as Toyota, Honda, and Mitsubishi Motors. It was in the 1920s that the automobile industry began to develop there. It is thus often compared to Detroit in the United States.
THE CULTURAL GEMS OF AICHI PREFECTURE
If Aichi Prefecture is far from being culturally rich as Tokyo or Kyoto, individual monuments, ancient or modern, are not missed. We will first think of Nagoya Castle: it is a perfect replica of 1959 of the original building built-in 1612. The museum’s interior tells the story of the place. We can only advise visiting the castle and its gardens during the hanami, the areas being magnificent when its numerous cherry trees bloom.
The Atsuta Shrine is a jewel of the city, founded in the 2nd century. It notably houses a mythical saber, which is one of the three imperial badges.
The Tokugawa art museum and its splendid Japanese gardens are also not missed if you pass by. It allows you to discover Japanese art and history through exquisite pieces such as katanas, armor, costumes, lacquers, paintings… etc.
Finally, the city’s modern side is revealed with the NHK Tower in Nagoya (180 meters high), very close to the recent Oasis 21 shopping center with the original architecture. On the roof of the “Spaceship Aqua”, you can enjoy a walk around a pool, which offers a beautiful view of the city.
Festival and Events to Enjoy in Aichi Prefecture
- Tokoname Floats Festival – Spring Festival (Tokoname no Dashi Matsuri – Haru Matsuri)
- Shellfish Gathering at Yamada Bay
- Azaleas Festival (Hagi-no-Mitsuba-Tsutsuji Matsuri)
- Denpark Flower Festival
- Higashiura Odai Festival
- Koto Garden Wisteria Festival (Kotoen Fuji Matsuri)
- Konan Wisteria Festival (Konan Fuji Matsuri)
- Sumo summer tournament
- Owari Tsushima Wisteria Festival (Owari Tsushima Fuji Matsuri)
PLACES TO VISIT IN AICHI
- The museums: the City Art Museum Nagoya, Tokugawa Museum, Art Museum of Aichi Prefecture, the Automobile Museum Toyota (for car enthusiasts!)
- Nagoya harbor aquarium. Address: 1-3 Minatomachi, Minato Ward, Nagoya, Aichi 455-0033
- Osu Kannon temple. Address: 2-21-47 Ōsu, Naka Ward, Nagoya, Aichi 460-0011
- Higashiyama Park. Address: Kameiri Tashirocho, Chikusa Ward, Nagoya, Aichi 464-0000
Typical food from Aichi province and its surroundings
Nagoya’s “cochin” and chicken
Free-range chicken raised in Nagoya is popularly known as Nagoya “cochin,” although initially, this chicken was raised in northern China. It is used in various dishes, such as chicken rice dishes, casserole chicken, chicken in sukiyaki, and chicken wings.
It is an “udon” in a flat shape cooked with soy sauce, miso broth, or curry broth. There are also other varieties such as tempura, rice cakes or “mochi”, etc.
The miso haccho (typical Aichi dressing) is added to the pork cutlet or escalope, and this is an original Aichi dish.
Aiči E13A1 11 [Jake]
|Aiči E13A1 11||Aichi E13A1 11|
|Originální název: |
|průzkumný/pozorovací letoun||reconnaissance/scout aeroplane|
|DD.MM.1938-DD.MM.1942 Aichi Watch and Electric Machinery, Ltd., Nagoya / |
DD.MM.1940-DD.10.1941 Hiro Naval Arsenal, Kure /
DD.10.1941-DD.MM.1942 11th Naval Aviation Workshop, Kure /
DD.MM.1942-DD.MM.1943 Watanabe Iron Works, Ltd., Fukuoka /
DD.MM.1943-DD.MM.1944 Kyushu Aircrafts Ltd., Fukuoka /
|Období výroby: |
|Vyrobeno kusů: |
Number of Produced:
|1 418 (všechny verze E13A / all versions):|
Aichi - 133
Hiro - 48
Watanabe/Kyushu - 1 237
|První vzlet: |
|Vzlet a přistání: |
Take-off and Landing:
|CTOL - konvenční vzlet a přistání||CTOL - conventional take-off and landing|
|Uspořádání křídla: |
Arrangement of Wing:
|Uspořádání letounu: |
|Přistávací zařízení: |
|Hmotnost prázdného letounu: |
|2524 kg||5564 lb|
|Vzletová hmotnost: |
|3650 kg||8047 lb|
|Maximální vzletová hmotnost: |
Maximum Take-off Weight:
|4000 kg||8818 lb|
|14,500 m||47ft 6,87in|
|11,268 m||36ft 11,62in|
|4,783 m||15ft 8,31in|
|Plocha křídla: |
|36,20 m 2||389.65 ft 2|
|Plošné zatížení: |
|100,82 kg/m 2||20.65 lb/ft 2|
|Počet motorů: |
Number of Engines:
|Mitsubishi Kinsei 43, vzduchem chlazený dvouhvězdicový čtrnáctiválec o vzletovém výkonu 780 kW (1 060 k) a 794 kW (1 080 k) ve výšce 2 000 m. |
Vrtule trojlistá kovová stavitelná o průměru 3 100 mm.
|Mitsubishi Kinsei 43 fourteen-cylinder air-cooled twin-row radial rated at 1,045 hp for take-off, and 1,065 hp at 5,662 ft, |
driving a three-blade metal variable-pitch propeller of the diameter 10ft 2in.
|Objem palivových nádrží: |
Fuel Tank Capacity:
|Maximální rychlost: |
|376 km/h v 2180 m||233.6 mph in 7152 ft|
|Cestovní rychlost: |
|222 km/h v 2000 m||137.9 mph in 6562 ft|
|Rychlost stoupání: |
|8,25 m/s||1624 ft/min|
|Čas výstupu na výšku: |
Time to Climb to:
|5,45 min do 3000 m||5,45 min to 9843 ft|
|Operační dostup: |
|7950 m||26083 ft|
|1540 km||956.9 mi|
|Maximální dolet: |
|1960 km||1217.9 mi|
|1x pohyblivý kulomet Type 92 ráže 7,69 mm |
Pumový náklad: 1x 250 kg nebo 4x 60 kg.
|One flexible rearward-firing 0.303 inch Type 92 machine-gun.|
Bomb load: Oone 551 lbs bomb, or four 132 lbs bombs or depth-charges.
|零式水上偵察機 - Reišiki/zerošiki suidžó teisacuki - průzkumný hydroplán typ 0 model 11||零式水上偵察機 - Reishiki suijó teisacuki - Navy Type Zero Model 11 Reconnaissance Seaplane|
|Upravil a doplnil moderátor Vláďa za pomoci těchto zdrojů:|
René J. Francillon Ph.D., Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, Naval Institute Press, rok 1987, ISBN: 0-87021-313-X
Tadashi Nozawa, Encyclopedia of Japanese Aircraft 1900-1945. Vol.2. Aichi Aircraft. Shuppan-Kyodo, rok 1981
Tadeusz Januszewski a Kryzysztof Zalewski, Japońskie samoloty marynarski 1912-1945, díl 1., Lampart, rok 2000, ISBN: 83-86776-50-1
Famous Airplanes of the World, Imperial Japanese Navy Reconnaissance, No. 47, Bunrindo Co. Ltd., rok 1994/7, ISBN4-89319-044-X
David Donald, The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, Barnes & Nobles Books, rok 1997, ISBN-10: 0760705925
Václav Němeček, Vojenská letadla 3 díl, druhé doplněné vydání, Naše Vojsko, Praha 1992, ISBN 80-206-0117-1
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Mateřské lodě pro hydroplány: Chitose, Chiyoda, Kimikawa Maru
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A decade ago, the world agreed to 20 biodiversity targets. It did not meet any of them.
The international community has failed to meet fully any of the biodiversity targets it set at a major summit 10 years ago, the United Nations said this week.
“Earth’s living systems as a whole are being compromised,” said Elizabeth Maruma Mrema, the executive secretary of the U.N. Convention on Biological Diversity, in a statement. “And the more humanity exploits nature in unsustainable ways and undermines its contributions to people, the more we undermine our own wellbeing, security and prosperity.”
The damning U.N. conclusion comes a decade after the Aichi Biodiversity Targets were set by the more than 190 countries that participated in a Convention on Biological Diversity meeting in Japan.
The targets’s architects hoped to see a world, by 2020, in which “pressures on biodiversity are reduced, ecosystems are restored” and “biological resources are sustainably used,” among other goals.
But as the deadline passes, only six of the 20 goals have been achieved even in part, the U.N. said in its Global Biodiversity Outlook report released Tuesday. The loss of biodiversity, the variety of living species on earth, continues.
There has been some progress, according to the U.N., in expanding protected areas and eradicating some invasive species. Many countries have also taken new steps to reduce deforestation, and awareness of the importance of biodiversity is on the rise.
The “number of extinctions of birds and mammals would likely have been at least two to four times higher without conservation actions over the past decade,” according to the report. But species “continue to move, on average, closer to extinction.”
“1 million animal and plant species are now threatened with extinction, many within decades, more than ever before in human history,” the U.N. warned in a report last year.
Progress, the authors found, has been insufficient and unequally distributed.
Biodiversity-related funding has flatlined in many countries. The annual funding available for projects to work toward the Aichi targets — an estimated $78 to $91 billion — is far from what is needed, at least “hundreds of billions of dollars,” according to the report. At the same time, funding for projects harmful to biodiversity has not faltered.
The setbacks have been many. Pollution levels are high. More than 60 percent of the world’s coral reefs are under threat. Only 66 percent of the stocks fished worldwide were at biologically sustainable levels in 2017, down from 71 percent seven years earlier.
Climate change “threatens to undermine all efforts to conserve and sustainably manage biodiversity,” António Guterres, the U.N. secretary general, wrote in the report’s introduction. Yet the natural world Guterres wrote, “offers some of the most effective solutions to avert the worst impacts of a warming planet.”
Experts warn ecosystem loss and the wildlife trade, which reduce biodiversity, can also increase the likelihood that novel pathogens will spread to humans.
In a release, Inger Andersen, the executive director of the United Nations Environment Program, proposed that biodiversity projects should be included in coronavirus recovery packages, to “ensure a better future for our societies and the planet.”