Major events, sports highlights and Nobel Prizes of 1941 - History

Major events, sports highlights and Nobel Prizes of 1941 - History


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Sports

NCAA Football: Minnesota Record: 8-0-0
Heisman Trophy: Bruce Smith, Minnesota, HB points: 554
Stanley Cup: Boston Bruins vs. Detroit Red Wings Series: 4-0
US Open (Golf): Craig Wood Score: 284 Course: Colonial Club Location: Ft. Worth, TX
World Series: New York Yankees vs. Brooklyn Dodgers Series: 4-1

Nobel Prizes

Chemistry
The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

Literature
The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

Peace
The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section.

Physiology or Medicine
The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section.

Physics
The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

Pulitzer Prizes

Drama: Robert E. Sherwood ... "There Shall Be No Night"
History: Marcus Lee Hansen ... "The Atlantic Migration: 1607-1860"
Public Service: "St. Louis Post-Dispatch"

Academy Awards

Best Picture: "How Green Was My Valley"
Best Director: John Ford ... "How Green Was My Valley"
Best Actor: Gary Cooper ... "Sergeant York "
Best Actress: Joan Fontaine ... "Suspicion"

1. Ball of Fire
2. Captains of the Clouds
3. Eagle Squadron
4. Holiday Inn
5. Honky Tonk
6. How Green Was My Valley
7. In This Our Life
8. Kings Row
9. Louisiana Purchase
10. The Man Who Came to Dinner


Iran profile - timeline

550-330 BC - Achaemenid dynasty rules the first Persian Empire. At its greatest extent under Darius I stretches from the Aegean Sea and Libya to the Indus Valley.

636 - Arab invasion brings end of Sassanid dynasty and start of Islamic rule.

9th century - Emergence of modern Persian language, written using a form of Arabic script.

1220 - Mongol forces of Genghis Khan overrun Persia, which becomes part of the Ilkhanate, ruled by descendants of Genghis' grandson Hulagu.

1501 - With the support of Shia Qizilbash warrior tribes, Shah Ismail I becomes first ruler of Islamic Safavid dynasty Shia Islam declared state religion.

1571-1629 Apogee of the Safavid Empire under Shah Abbas I, who reforms the army, sidelines the Qizilbash and establishes first diplomatic links with western Europe.

1794 - Mohammad Khan Qajar founds the Qajar dynasty, restoring stability to Iran after half a century.

1828 - Iran cedes control of Caucasus to Russia after second Russo-Persian war.

1907 - Introduction of constitution which limits the absolutist powers of rulers.


1930s: Sports and Games

The 1920s were thought to be the "golden age of sports." Throughout the 1930s, however, capable athletes broke previous records in rapid succession. Swimmers swam faster, track stars ran faster, horses raced faster, and race-car and powerboat drivers broke new speed records. The rules of basketball and the design of the football were changed to make the games move faster and to increase scores. In the 1920s, single individuals—such as Babe Ruth 1895–1948) in baseball, Jack Dempsey (1895–1983) in boxing, and Bobby Jones (1902–1971) in golf—were called the best in their sport. In the 1930s, many athletes contributed to their sports. Few, except perhaps Joe Louis (1914–1981) in boxing, Babe Didrickson (1911–1956) in track and golf, and Jesse Owens (1913–1980) in track and field, became shining stars.

Because of the Great Depression (1929–41), many sports teams began attracting audiences in inventive ways. They started to find ways to earn money without increasing ticket prices. As a result, many sports became more and more commercialized. Radio broadcasts brought sports to more people than ever. Although the broadcasts were free to listeners, the price for broadcast rights and the commercial airtime brought sports teams more money. Bright stadium lights made it possible to draw huge crowds to night baseball games. The organization of all-star games boosted attendance at both baseball and football games. Heavy betting increased interest in boxing, making it America's second favorite sport after baseball during the decade.

Although the majority of sports remained segregated during the decade, in baseball the high-quality play of the teams in the Negro Leagues gained attention from white baseball fans. Track and field athletes like Jesse Owens and Eddie Tolan (1908–1967) gained international acclaim. Women gained recognition as athletes in the 1930s as well. Babe Didrikson entered 634 different sporting events during the decade and won 632 of them. She lost one basketball game and was disqualified from a high-jump competition after having apparently set a world record. Sonja Henie (1912–1969) popularized figure skating. Both Didrikson and Henie became millionaires by demonstrating their sporting abilities. Virnett Beatrice "Jackie" Mitchell (1914–1987) was the first woman to sign with a professional baseball team. Her fame soared when she struck out both Babe Ruth (1895–1948) and Lou Gehrig (1903–1941) in an exhibition game in 1931. Amelia Earhart (1897–1937) set a world record when she flew from New Zealand to Ireland in 1932.

People throughout the United States were fascinated by sports. Children started playing baseball in Little Leagues. Older baseball players could compete in various amateur and semiprofessional leagues, which held local, state, and sometimes national tournaments. Bowling leagues started across the country. The United States Lawn Tennis Association promoted tennis as a sport for everyone—everyone at this time except African Americans, who were invited to play by their own American Tennis Association. At home, board games were popular entertainment. Monopoly was introduced, a game that allowed people to buy properties and manage amounts of play money that few had in reality.

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Today in History

Today is Thursday, May 27, the 147th day of 2021. There are 218 days left in the year.

Today’s Highlight in History:

On May 27, 1941, the British Royal Navy sank the German battleship Bismarck off France with a loss of some 2,000 lives, three days after the Bismarck sank the HMS Hood with the loss of more than 1,400 lives. Amid rising world tensions, President Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaimed an “unlimited national emergency” during a radio address from the White House.

In 1861, Chief Justice Roger Taney, sitting as a federal circuit court judge in Baltimore, ruled that President Abraham Lincoln lacked the authority to suspend the writ of habeas corpus (Lincoln disregarded the ruling).

In 1896, 255 people were killed when a tornado struck St. Louis, Missouri, and East St. Louis, Illinois.

In 1933, the Chicago World’s Fair, celebrating “A Century of Progress,” officially opened. Walt Disney’s Academy Award-winning animated short “The Three Little Pigs” was first released.

In 1935, the U.S. Supreme Court, in Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States, unanimously struck down the National Industrial Recovery Act, a key component of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s “New Deal” legislative program.

In 1937, the newly completed Golden Gate Bridge connecting San Francisco and Marin County, California, was opened to pedestrian traffic (vehicles began crossing the next day).

In 1942, Doris “Dorie” Miller, a cook aboard the USS West Virginia, became the first African-American to receive the Navy Cross for displaying “extraordinary courage and disregard for his own personal safety” during Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor.

In 1964, independent India’s first prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, died.

In 1968, the U.S. Supreme Court, in United States v. O’Brien, upheld the conviction of David O’Brien for destroying his draft card outside a Boston courthouse, ruling that the act was not protected by freedom of speech.

In 1993, five people were killed in a bombing at the Uffizi museum of art in Florence, Italy some three dozen paintings were ruined or damaged.

In 1994, Nobel Prize-winning author Alexander Solzhenitsyn returned to Russia to the emotional cheers of thousands after spending two decades in exile.

In 1998, Michael Fortier (FOR’-tee-ur), the government’s star witness in the Oklahoma City bombing case, was sentenced to 12 years in prison after apologizing for not warning anyone about the deadly plot. (Fortier was freed in January 2006.)

In 2018, LeBron James reached his eighth straight NBA Finals as the Cleveland Cavaliers beat the Boston Celtics 87-79 in Game 7 of the semifinals.

Ten years ago: Astronauts Mike Fincke and Gregory Chamitoff made history as the final spacewalkers of NASA’s 30-year shuttle program, completing construction of the International Space Station with the smooth addition of an extension pole. President Barack Obama, visiting Poland, honored the memories of those slain in the Warsaw Ghetto uprising against Nazis. Gil Scott-Heron, 62, widely considered one of the godfathers of rap music, died in New York. Actor Jeff Conaway died at a hospital in Encino, California he was 60.

Five years ago: President Barack Obama became the first American chief executive to visit Hiroshima, the city where the U.S. dropped the first atomic bomb during World War II, declaring it a fitting place to summon people everywhere to embrace the vision of a world without nuclear weapons.

One year ago: Protests over the death of George Floyd in police custody rocked Minneapolis for a second night, with some people looting stores and setting fires. Protests spread to additional cities hundreds of people blocked a Los Angeles freeway and shattered windows of California Highway Patrol cruisers. The U.S. surged past a milestone in the coronavirus pandemic, with the confirmed death toll topping 100,000. For the first time, House lawmakers voted by proxy, a move aimed at avoiding the risks of travel to Washington during the pandemic. Boeing said it would cut more than 12,000 U.S. jobs through layoffs and buyouts as it dealt with a downturn in travel caused by the pandemic at the same time, the company said it was resuming production of the 737 Max jetliner. Playwright and AIDS activist Larry Kramer died of pneumonia at 84.

Today’s Birthdays: Former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger is 98. Author John Barth is 91. Actor Lee Meriwether is 86. Musician Ramsey Lewis is 86. Actor Louis Gossett Jr. is 85. R&B singer Raymond Sanders (The Persuasions) is 82. Actor Bruce Weitz is 78. Former Sen. Christopher Dodd (D-Conn.) is 77. Singer Bruce Cockburn (KOH’-burn) is 76. South Carolina Gov. Henry McMaster is 74. Singer-actor Dee Dee Bridgewater is 71. Actor Richard Schiff is 66. Singer Siouxsie Sioux (The Creatures, Siouxsie and the Banshees) is 64. Rock singer-musician Neil Finn (The Finn Brothers) is 63. Actor Peri Gilpin is 60. Actor Cathy Silvers is 60. Comedian Adam Carolla is 57. Actor Todd Bridges is 56. Rock musician Sean Kinney (Alice In Chains) is 55. Actor Dondré Whitfield is 52. Actor Paul Bettany is 50. Rock singer-musician Brian Desveaux (Nine Days) is 50. Country singer Jace Everett is 49. Actor Jack McBrayer is 48. Rapper Andre 3000 (Outkast) is 46. Rapper Jadakiss is 46. TV chef Jamie Oliver is 46. Alt-country singer-songwriter Shane Nicholson is 45. Actor Ben Feldman is 41. Actor Michael Steger is 41. Actor Darin Brooks is 37. Actor-singer Chris Colfer is 31. Actor Ethan Dampf is 27. Actor Desiree Ross (TV: “Greenleaf”) is 22.

Copyright © 2021 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, written or redistributed.


Insulin Chemistry, Biology, and Physiology

Figure 2. Figure 2. The Structure of Human Proinsulin.

Proinsulin is converted to insulin by proteolytic converting enzymes that remove the connecting peptide (C-peptide) and the lysine-arginine (Lys-Arg) and arginine-arginine (Arg-Arg) sequences of dibasic amino acids, leaving the mature insulin molecule, which consists of A and B chains connected by disulfide bonds.

The dramatic discovery of insulin and the rapid demonstration that it is essential for human health stimulated intense interest in its chemistry and biology. A number of landmark discoveries resulted, some of which reached beyond diabetes research. For example, Frederick Sanger was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for developing methods to sequence the amino acids of proteins, and he used insulin as an example of his approaches. 12 Insulin was the first hormone for which the three-dimensional crystal structure was determined (by Dorothy Hodgkin, who had previously received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for determining the structure of vitamin B12). Donald Steiner's demonstration in 1967 that the two-polypeptide insulin molecule is derived from a single-chain precursor proinsulin 13 was important not only for our understanding of the biochemistry of insulin but also because it applies to other peptide hormones that are transcribed as single-chain precursors. Insulin was the first hormone to be cloned 14 and then produced for therapeutic use by means of recombinant DNA technology, which provided an unlimited supply of this important molecule and laid the foundation for the biotechnology industry. Figure 2 shows the structure of insulin.

The development of the radioimmunoassay for insulin by Rosalyn Yalow and Solomon Berson in 1959 permitted the quantitative measurement of pancreatic beta-cell function in animals and humans and established the radioimmunoassay as a powerful tool for measuring proteins, metabolites, and other chemicals present in very low concentrations. 15 Much of our current understanding of diabetes has resulted from the ability to measure serum insulin levels.


The Indomitable Style of Bob Dylan

Music legend, beat generation icon, and underwear spokesman Bob Dylan was awarded the 2016 Nobel Prize in Literature today, a first for a musician. The committee awarded it to the singer-songwriter for “having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition,” which seems an accurate assessment to any one who’s read his lyrics or cracked open the first volume of his autobiography Chronicles. To many people Dylan transcends the traditional idea of music maker and, over the years, has ascended to the role of cultural icon. If that seems overblown, perhaps Dylan himself said it best: “All I can be is me — whoever that is.”

And while Dylan’s musical legacy is rich and varied — and has itself created a cottage industry of critical theory — we’re here to talk about a more straightforward contribution he’s made to the American canon, and that’s in his style. His look: low-key, unassuming, with a thrift store quality, helped define the visual tone of the music scene in downtown New York during the 1960s, a look that soon spread across the country. It is an aesthetic that’s been mined time and again by fashion designers (see: Hedi Slimane, John Varvatos, Tom Ford) who have reimagined and recut many of the artist’s now-iconic looks as wardrobe staples for a new generation of swagger-seeking men.

Looking back, Dylan wasn’t a revolutionary dresser, but what he wore always conveyed a sense of effortless confidence. And that’s the most undeniable takeaway when you study iconic images of the music hero through his career: In his mussed-up hair, a pair of classic Ray-Bans, in the leather jackets and turtlenecks, there was a sense of undeniable, and unstudied, cool.

NEW YORK - SEPTEMBER 1961: Bob Dylan walking with his girlfriend Suze Rotolo in September 1961 in New York City, New York. (Photo by Michael Ochs Archives/Getty Images)

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NEW YORK - SEPTEMBER 1961: Bob Dylan plays acoustic guitar and smokes a cigarette in this headshot from September 1961 in New York City, New York. (Photo by Michael Ochs Archives/Getty Images)

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UNITED KINGDOM - DECEMBER 22: Photo of Bob DYLAN performing at the Singers Club Christmas party on his first visit to Britain (Photo by Brian Shuel/Redferns)

The cover for the Bob Dylan album 'The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan', released by Columbia Records in 1963. The cover features Dylan and his girlfriend Suze Rotolo walking near their apartment in Greenwich Village, New York City. (Photo by Blank Archives/Archive Photos/Getty Images)

Blank Archives/Archive Photos/Getty Images

American folk singer Bob Dylan's album cover for 'Highway 61 Revisited,' 1965. (Photo by Blank Archives/Getty Images)

NEW YORK - JANUARY 13-15: Bob Dylan plays a Fender Jazz bass with the harmonica around his neck while recording his album 'Bringing It All Back Home' on January 13-15, 1965 in Columbia's Studio A in New York City, New York. (Photo by Michael Ochs Archives/Getty Images)

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April 1965: American electric folk hero Bob Dylan (born Robert Zimmerman 1941 - ) looking shady in London. (Photo by Doug McKenzie/Getty Images)

American folk/rock singer and songwriter Bob Dylan smiles during a meeting with the British press, April 28, 1965. (Photo by H. Thompson/Evening Standard/Hulton Archive/Getty Images

JANUARY 1964: Bob Dylan poses for a portrait to promote the release of his album 'The Times They Are A-Changin'' in January 1964. (Photo by Michael Ochs Archives/Getty Images)

Michael Ochs Archives/Getty

1962: Bob Dylan recording in the studio with his acoustic guitar and an assortment of harmonicas in 1961 or 1962. (Photo by Michael Ochs Archives/Getty Images)

Michael Ochs Archives/Getty

1965: Bob Dylan plays harmonica and piano to a microphone during the recording of the album 'Highway 61 Revisited' in Columbia's Studio A in the summer of 1965 in New York City, New York. (Photo by Michael Ochs Archives/Getty Images)

Michael Ochs Archives/Getty

UNITED KINGDOM - MAY 01: Photo of Bob DYLAN posed at press conference at The Savoy (Photo by Fiona Adams/Redferns)

Portrait of American folk musician and songwriter Bob Dylan smiling and holding a cigarette, early 1960s. (Photo by American Stock/Getty Images)

1962: Bob Dylan recording in the studio with his acoustic guitar and an assortment of harmonicas in 1961 or 1962. (Photo by Michael Ochs Archives/Getty Images)

Michael Ochs Archives/Getty

1963: Bob Dylan poses for a portrait in 1963. (Photo by Michael Ochs Archives/Getty Images)

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American folk pop singer Bob Dylan at a press conference in London. (Photo by Express Newspapers/Getty Images)

Arriv?e de Bob Dylan ? l'a?roport du Bourget, France le 22 mai 1966. (Photo by Keystone-FranceGamma-Rapho via Getty Images)

Gamma-Keystone via Getty Images

THE JOHNNY CASH SHOW - Shoot Date: May 1, 1969. (Photo by ABC Photo Archives/ABC via Getty Images)BOB DYLAN

ABC Photo Archives/Getty Images

UNITED KINGDOM - AUGUST 28: Photo of Bob DYLAN Event: 1969., Artist: Bob Dylan (Photo by Cummings Archives/Redferns)

2nd September 1969: American electric folk hero Bob Dylan (born Robert Zimmerman 1941 - ) arriving at an airport with his wife Sara. (Photo by Evening Standard/Getty Images)

LOS ANGELES - JANUARY 01, 1982: Bob Dylan at Neil Bogart's funeral in Los Angeles, Calfornia. EXCLUSIVE (Photos by California Features/FilmMagic)

TORONTO, ON:Bob Dylan. Photo taken by Keith Beaty July 16, 1972, at Mariposa Folk Festival on Olympic Island. Dylan was vacationing in the area and dropped in. (Keith Beaty/Toronto Star via Getty Images)

Toronto Star via Getty Images

(GERMANY OUT) Dylan, Bob (*25.04.1941-), (Eigentlich Robert Allen Zimmerman), Musiker, USA, - Portrait mit Sonnenbrille, - 1978 (Photo by Hans-Joachim Hofmann / ullstein bild via Getty Images)

Hans-Joachim Hofmann / ullstein bild via Getty

SAN FRANCISCO - NOVEMBER 25: Bob Dylan arrives for sound check at the 'The Last Waltz' concert at Winterland Ballroom on November 25, 1976 in San Francisco, California. (Photo by Larry Hulst/Michael Ochs Archives/Getty Images)

BEVERLY HILLS, CA - FEBRUARY 27: Musician Bob Dylan Roth of Van Halen attends the 22nd Annual Grammy Awards After Party Hosted by Warner Bros. Records on February 27, 1980 at Chasen's Restaurant in Beverly Hills, California. (Photo by Ron Galella/WireImage)

American singer-songwrite Bob Dylan during his Slow Train Coming tour at Warfield Theatre, San Francisco, November 1979. (Photo by Baron Wolman/Iconic Images/Getty Images)


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