Douglas XC-116

Douglas XC-116


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Douglas XC-116

The single Douglas XC-116 was a sister to the XC-114, and like that aircraft was a version of the C-54 with a longer (100ft 7in compared to 93ft 10in) fuselage. The only difference was the use of thermal de-icing equipment on the XC-116 in place of the pneumatic boots used on the XC-114 and C-54s. Neither the XC-114 nor XC-116 entered production, while the Packard V-1650 powered XC-115 never even reached the prototype stage. The end of the Second World War, and the existence of large numbers of C-47s, C-53s and C-54s allowed the USAAF to wait for the development of more powerful transport aircraft.


Douglas (given name)

Douglas is a Scottish masculine given name which originated from the surname Douglas. Although today the name is almost exclusively given to boys, it was used as a girl's name in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in the north of England. [1] The Scottish surname Douglas was borne by one of the most powerful families of the Kingdom of Scotland (the Earls of Douglas, Angus, Morton, Dukes of Hamilton and others). It has sometimes been stated that the given name is connected with the given name Dougal, although it is more likely derived from the surname already mentioned. [2]

Douglas
Pronunciation / ˈ d ʌ ɡ l ə s / DUG -ləs
GenderMale
Origin
Word/nameScottish Gaelic
MeaningDark stream
Region of originSouth Lanarkshire, Scotland
Other names
Related namesDoug Dougalasa Dougie Douglas (surname) Duggie, Dúghlas Dubhghlas Duggie Dùbhghlas Koukakala

Linguistically, Douglas is derived from the Gaelic elements: dubh, meaning "dark, black" and glas, meaning "stream" (also a derivative of glas, meaning "green"). [3] The surname Douglas is a habitational name, which could be derived from any of the many places so-named. While there are numerous places with this name in both Ireland and Scotland, it is thought, in most cases, to refer to Douglas, South Lanarkshire, which was once the stronghold of Clan Douglas. [4]

The Scottish Gaelic form of the given name is Dùghlas [ˈt̪uːl̪ˠəs̪] [5] the Irish language form it is Dúghlas, [6] and Dubhghlas, which are pronounced [ˈd̪ˠuːɣlˠəsˠ] . [7] The Hawaiian language form of the given name is Koukalaka, which is pronounced [koukəˈlɐkə] a variant form of this name is Dougalasa. [8] [9] The given name Doug is a common short form variant of Douglas. Pet forms of the given name include: Dougie [2] and Duggie. In Scotland, while spelled Dougie like the above, there is a distinct Scottish pronunciation of "Doogie". [10]


C-54s began service with the US Army Air Forces in 1942, carrying up to 26 passengers. (Later versions carried up to 50 passengers.) The U.S. Navy also acquired the type, under the designation R5D. The C-54 was one of the most commonly used long-range transports by the U.S. armed forces in World War II. 515 C-54s were manufactured in Santa Monica, California and 655 were manufactured in Chicago, Illinois.

After World War II, the C-54 continued to serve as the primary airlifter of the new United States Air Force and with the United States Navy.

In late 1945, several hundred C-54s were surplus to U.S. military requirements and these were converted for civil airline operation, many by Douglas Aircraft at its aircraft plants. The aircraft were sold to airlines around the world. By January 1946, Pan American Airways was operating their Skymasters on transatlantic scheduled services to Europe and beyond. Trans-Pacific schedules from San Francisco to Auckland began on 6 June 1946. [ 1 ]

On July 23, 1954, a Douglas C-54 Skymaster civilian airliner, registration VR-HEU, operated by Cathay Pacific Airways, en route from Bangkok to Hong Kong, was shot down by Chinese Communist La-7 fighters off the coast of Hainan Island, killing 10. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 5 ]

President Harry S. Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947, which created the U.S. Air Force, on board "Sacred Cow", the Presidential C-54 which is preserved at the National Museum of the United States Air Force. More than 300 C-54s and R5Ds formed the backbone of the US contribution to the Berlin Airlift in 1948. They also served as the main airlift during the Korean War. After the Korean War, the C-54 was replaced by the Douglas C-124 Globemaster II, but continued to be used by the U.S. Air Force until 1972.

The C-54 was the personal aircraft of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Douglas MacArthur, and Winston Churchill (along with an Avro York). The C-54 was also used by the Royal Air Force, South African Air Force, Royal Canadian Air Force, the Armée de l'Air, and the armed forces of at least twelve other nations.


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metal monoplane airliner developed by the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation in the 1930s to compete with the Boeing 247 and Douglas DC-2. The aircraft gained considerable fame as it was flown by Amelia Earhart on her ill-fated around-the-world expedition in 1937.

Contents [hide]
1 Design and development
2 Operational history
3 Variants
4 Operators
4.1 Civil operators
4.2 Military operators
5 Survivors
6 Specifications (Electra 10A)
7 See also
8 References
9 External links

[edit] Design and development

Clarence “Kelly” Johnson testing an Electra model with single vertical tail in the University of Michigan’s wind tunnel.Some of Lockheed’s wooden designs, such as the Orion, had been built by Detroit Aircraft Corporation with metal fuselages. However, the Electra was Lockheed’s first all-metal and twin-engine design by Hall Hibbard. Most of the structure is 7075 Aluminum alloy with 2024 Aluminum alloy used for skin panels and bulkhead webs subjected to tension loads through pressurization.[1] The name Electra came from a star in the Pleiades. The prototype made its first flight on February 23, 1934 with Marshall Headle at the controls.

Wind tunnel work on the Electra was undertaken at the University of Michigan. Much of the work was performed by a student assistant, Clarence Johnson. He suggested two changes be made to the design: changing the single tail to double tails (later a Lockheed trademark), and deleting oversized wing fillets. Both of these suggestions were incorporated into production aircraft. Upon receiving his master’s degree, Johnson joined Lockheed as a regular employee, ultimately leading the Skunk Works in developing advanced aircraft such as the SR-71 Blackbird.

[edit] Operational history
After October 1934 when the US government banned single-engined aircraft for use in carrying passengers or in night flying, Lockheed was perfectly placed in the market with their new Model 10 Electra. Besides airline orders, a number of civil operators also purchased the new Model 10.[2] In May 1937, H.T. “Dick” Merrill and J.S. Lambie accomplished a round-trip crossing of the Atlantic Ocean. The feat was declared the first round-trip commercial crossing of that ocean. It won them the Harmon Trophy. On the eastbound trip, they carried newsreels of the crash of the Hindenburg, and on the return trip, they brought photographs of the coronation of King George VI. Probably the most famous use of the Electra was the highly modified Model 10E flown by aviatrix Amelia Earhart. In July 1937, she disappeared in her Electra during an attempted round-the-world flight.[2]

Many Electras and their design descendants (the Model 12 Electra Junior and Model 14 Super Electra) were pressed into military service during World War II, for instance the USAAF’s C-36. By the end of the war, the Electra design was obsolete, although many smaller airlines and charter services continued to operate Electras into the 1970s.[2]

Lockheed Y1C-36
Lockheed Y1C-37
Lockheed XC-35The Electra was produced in several variants, for both civilian and military customers. Lockheed built a total of 149 Electras.

Electra 10-A
Powered by two Pratt & Whitney R-985 Wasp Junior SB, 450 hp (336 kW) each 101 produced.
Three built for the U.S. Army Air Corps as Y1C-36, redesignated as C-36 in 1938 and as UC-36 in 1943.
Fifteen impressed by the U.S. Army Air Forces as C-36A, re-designated as UC-36A in 1943.
Three built as XR2O-1 / R2O-1 for the U.S. Secretary of the Navy.
One built as Y1C-37 for the Chief of the National Guard Bureau, redesignated as C-37 in 1938 and as UC-37 in 1943.
Electra 10-B
Powered by Wright R-975-E3 Whirlwind, 440 hp (340 kW) each 18 produced
Seven impressed by the U.S. Army Air Forces as C-36C, re-designated as UC-36C in 1943.
One built as XR3O-1 for the U.S. Coast Guard for use by the Secretary of the Treasury.
Electra 10-C
Powered by Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp SC1, 450 hp (336 kW) each eight produced for Pan American Airways.
Electra 10-D
Proposed military transport version none built.
Electra 10-E
Powered by Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp S3H1, 600 hp (450 kW) each 15 produced. The version used by Amelia Earhart.
Five impressed by the U.S. Army Air Forces as C-36B, re-designated as UC-36B in 1943.
XC-35
Experimental pressurized research model powered by turbocharged Pratt & Whitney XR-1340-43, 550 hp (410 kW) each. The one production model was tested for the War Department by Lieutenant Ben Kelsey. For this work, the Army Air Corps was awarded the 1937 Collier Trophy. The XC-35 is currently in storage in the collection of the National Air and Space Museum.
Lockheed KXL1
A single Lockheed Model 10 Electra supplied to the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service for evaluation.
[edit] Operators
[edit] Civil operators
Australia
Ansett Airways
Guinea Airways, an Australian airline serving New Guinea.
MacRobertson-Miller Aviation
Qantas Empire Airways
Brazil
Aeronorte
Cruzeiro do Sul
Panair do Brasil
VARIG
Canada
Canadian Airways
Trans-Canada Air Lines
Chile
LAN Chile
Cuba
Compañia Cubana de Aviación
Mexico
Compañía Mexicana de Aviación
Netherlands
KLM West Indies Section
New Zealand
Union Airways of New Zealand
National Airways Corporation
Poland
LOT Polish Airlines operated ten aircraft between 1936 and 1939.
Romania
LARES
United Kingdom
British Airways Ltd. (not to be confused with the present-day British Airways)
United States
Braniff Airways
Chicago and Southern Air Lines
Continental Air Lines
Delta Air Lines
Eastern Air Lines
Mid-Continent Airlines (formerly Hanford Airlines)
National Airlines
Northeast Airlines (formerly Boston-Maine/Central Vermont Airways)
Northwest Airlines
Pacific Alaska Airways, which became the Alaska division of Pan American Airways
Wisconsin Central Airlines
Venezuela
Línea Aeropostal Venezolana
Yugoslavia
Aeroput

Lockheed Electra 10A in Royal Air Force service
U.S. Navy XR2O-1 Argentina
Argentine Air Force
Brazil
Brazilian Air Force
Canada
Royal Canadian Air Force
Honduras
Honduran Air Force
Spain
Spanish Air Force
United Kingdom
Royal Air Force
United States
United States Army Air Corps/Army Air Forces
United States Navy
United States Coast Guard
Venezuela
Venezuelan Air Force
Imperial Japanese Air Force (copy)
[edit] Survivors

Electra 10A “CF-TCC” in Trans-Canada Air Lines livery at the Western Canada Aviation Museum.Canada is the home of two Model 10As. The first aircraft in the Air Canada (then called Trans-Canada Air Lines) fleet was an Electra 10A, “TCA.” Two Electras were delivered to Trans-Canada Air Lines (TCA) in 1937. They were based in Winnipeg and used for pilot training. Trans-Canada Air Lines ordered three more for transcontinental service “CF-TCC” was one of those three. These former TCA machines and other 10As were acquired by the RCAF during Second World War, and later sold to private operators.

TCA survived into the 1960s when Ann Pellegreno between 7 June and 10 July 1967 flew TCA on a round-the-world flight to commemorate Amelia Earhart’s last flight in 1937. The Canada Aviation Museum acquired this aircraft after the commemorative flight. Manufactured in 1937, the Museum example was the first new aircraft purchased by Trans-Canada Air Lines and served with the company until transferred to the RCAF in 1939. Sold in 1941 to a private operator, it was flown until 1967 by various owners. Air Canada restored the aircraft in 1968 and donated it to the Museum.
TCC was another former Trans-Canada Air Lines original. CF-TCC was found in Florida by a vacationing Air Canada employee in the early 1980s. Arrangements were made for it to be brought back to Winnipeg where it was restored. It was flown across Canada in 1987 to commemorate Air Canada’s 50th Anniversary. Air Canada maintains the aircraft and uses it to promote the airline. The aircraft was placed on display at Expo 86 after recreating the original TCA cross-country flight in 1937 and continues to be displayed at air shows and conferences. In 2006, it was flown from Toronto to Washington DC for the annual “Airliners International” Show.[3] For most of the year, TCC resides at the Western Canada Aviation Museum where it is one of the feature aircraft displayed.
Believed that TCC was formerly N239PB operated by Provincetown-Boston Airlines.

Two Model 10 Electras are also preserved in New Zealand’s Museum of Transport and Technology at Auckland. Another Auckland-based Electra, owned by Kaipara Aviation Trust, is under restoration to flying condition.

A military version designated as UC-36A Electra (s/n 43-56638, civilian registration N4963C) is on display at the Pima Air and Space Museum in Tucson, Arizona. Another military version designated AC-35 Electra is on display at the Udvar-Hazy Center of the National Air and Space Museum in Chantilly, Virginia.

A Model 10A Electra, Serial no. 1037, made in 1935, is on display in the Science Museum (London) in the “Making the Modern World Gallery”.

Electra 10A, serial no. 1052 is undergoing final restoration while on display at the New England Air Museum in Windsor Locks, Connecticut. Although originally a USN XR20-1 (BuNo 0267), it is painted in Northwest Airlines colors. At one point it was intended to use this machine for a recreation of the Earhart flight but it required too much work.[4] N38BB is on display at Western Aerospace Museum in Oakland, CA and is scheduled for restoration in the near future. This aircraft was originally supposed to be restored and cast for a role in the new Amelia Earhart movie but a deal could not be made with producers and a Lockheed 12 was used instead. Believe N38BB was formally N38PB operated by Provincetown-Boston Airlines.

[edit] Specifications (Electra 10A)
General characteristics

Crew: 2
Capacity: 10 passengers
Length: 38 ft 7 in (11.8 m)
Wingspan: 55 ft 0 in (16.8 m)
Height: 10 ft 1 in (3.1 m)
Wing area: 458 ft² (42.6 m²)
Empty weight: 6,454 lb (2,930 kg)
Loaded weight: 10,500 lb (4,760 kg)
Powerplant: 2× Pratt & Whitney R-985 Wasp Junior SB, 450 hp (340 kW) each
Performance

Maximum speed: 202 mph (325 km/h)
Range: 713 mi (1,150 km)
Service ceiling: 19,400 ft (5,910 m)
Rate of climb: 1,000 ft/min (300 m/min)
Wing loading: 22.9 lb/ft² (111.7 kg/m²)
Power/mass: 11.7 lb/hp (142 W/kg)
[edit] See also

Lockheed Model 12 Electra Junior
Lockheed Model 14 Super Electra

Beechcraft Model 18
Boeing 247
Douglas DC-2
Barkley-Grow T8P-1
Avro Anson
Airspeed Oxford
Caudron C.440
SAI KZ IV

List of military aircraft of the United States
List of military aircraft of the United States (naval)
List of Lockheed aircraft

[edit] References
This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations where appropriate. (June 2009)

Notes
1.^ “Airliners of the World: Electra.” flightglobal.com. Retrieved: February 3, 2010.
2.^ a b c Winchester 2004, p. 188
3.^ “New Horizons.” achorizons.ca. Retrieved: February 3, 2010.
4.^ “New England Air Museum.” http://www.neam.org. Retrieved: 1 August 2010.
Bibliography
Francillon, René J. Lockheed Aircraft since 1913. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1987. ISBN 0-85177-835-6.
Garrison, Peter. “Head Skunk”. Air & Space Magazine, March 2010.
Winchester, Jim, ed. “Lockheed 10 Electra”. Civil Aircraft (The Aviation Factfile). London: Grange Books plc, 2004. ISBN 1-84013-642-1.
[edit] External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Lockheed Model 10 Electra

XC-35 in the collection of the National Air and Space Museum
XC-35 from National Museum of the United States Air Force
Lockheed Electra 10A Restoration
[show]v • d • eLockheed and Lockheed Martin aircraft

Manufacturer
designations Basic Model Numbers L-1 · L-2 · L-3 · L-4 · L-5 · L-7 · L-8 · L-9 · L-10 · L-11 · L-012 · (L-013 not assigned) · L-014 · L-015 · L-016 · L-017 · L-018 · L-019 · L-020 · L-021 · L-022 · L-023 · L-024 · (L-025 not assigned) · L-026 · L-027 · (L-028 not assigned) · L-029 · L-030 · L-031 · L-032 · L-033 · L-034 · L-035 · (L-036 not assigned) · L-037 · (L-038 and L-039 not assigned) · L-040 · L-041 · L-042 · L-044 · L-045 · L-049 · L-050 · L-051 · L-052 · L-060 · L-061 · L-062 · L-075 · L-080 · L-081 · L-082 · L-083 · L-084 · L-085 · L-086 · L-087 · L-088 · L-089 · L-090 · L-091 · L-092 · L-093 · L-094 · L-092 · L-099 · L-100 · L-133 · L-193 · L-245 · L-246 · L-300 · L-301 · L-329 · L-351 · L-382 · L-500 · L-645

Lockheed-California
Temporary Design Numbers CL-282 · CL-288 · CL-295 · CL-320 · CL-325 · CL-329 · CL-346 · CL-379 · CL-400 · CL-407 · CL-475 · CL-595 · CL-704 · CL-760 · CL-823 · CL-901 · CL-915 · CL-934 · CL-981 · CL-984 · CL-985 · CL-1026 · CL-1195 · CL-1200 · CL-1400 · CL-1600 · CL-1700 · CL-1800 · CL-1980

By role Airliners and civil transports Vega · Sirius · Altair · Orion · Electra · Electra Junior · Super Electra · Lodestar · Constellation · Saturn · Electra · L-402 · JetStar · L-100 · L-1011

Military transports Y1C-12 · Y1C-17 · Y1C-23 · Y1C-25 · C-36 · C-37 · C-40 · C-56 · C-57 · C-59 · C-60 · C-63 · C-66 · C-69 · UC-85 · UC-101 · C-104 · C-111 · C-121 · C-130 / C-130J / HC-130 / LC-130 / MC-130 · C-139 · C-140 · C-141 · C-5 · JO · XRO · R2O · R3O · XR4O · R5O · R6O / R6V · R7O / R7V · R8V / GV / UV · TriStar

Attack and bombers Y1A-9 · A-28 · A-29 · XB-30 · B-34 · B-37 · FB-22 · AC-130

Drones Q-5 · Q-12 / D-21 · MQM-105 · RQ-3 · RQ-170
See also: DC-130

EW and reconnaissance O-56 · F-4 · F-5 · F-14 · YO-3 · EC-121 · EC-130 / EC-130E / EC-130H · WC-130 · EP-3 · RB-69 · U-2 / TR-1 · A-12 · SR-71 · PO / WV

Fighters XFM-2 · XPB-3 · YP-24 · P-38 · XP-49 · XP-58 · P/F-80 · XF-90 · F-94 · F-97 · F-104 · F-117 · F-16 · YF-22 · F-22 · F-35 · FO · XFV

Helicopters CL-475 · XH-51 · AH-56 · VH-71

Maritime patrol PBO · PV · P2V · P-2 · P3V · P-3 · P-7 · S-3 · CP-122 · CP-140

Trainers AT-18 · T-33 · T-40 · TO / TV · T2V / T-1

Experimental M-21 · NF-104A · XC-35 · XF-104 · VZ-10 / XV-4 · X-7 · X-17 · QT-2/QT-2PC/X-26B · X-27 · X-33 · X-35 · X-44 · X-55

Names Air Express · Aquila · Altair · Aurora · Big Dipper · Chain Lightning · Cheyenne · Constellation · Constitution · Electra (Model 10) · Electra (Model 88) · Electra Junior · Excalibur · Explorer · Galaxy · Hercules · Hudson · Hummingbird · JetStar · Kestrel · Kingfisher · Lightning · Little Dipper · Lodestar · Neptune · Orion (Model 9) · Orion (Model 85) · Raptor · Saturn · SeaStar · Sentinel · Shooting Star · Sirius · Starfighter · Starfire · Starlifter · Super Electra · Tristar · Vega · Ventura · Viking · Warning Star

[show]v • d • eUSAAS/USAAC/USAAF/USAF transport designations 1925–1962

Main sequence
1925-1962 C-1 • C-2 • C-3 • C-4 • C-5 • C-6 • C-7 • C-8 • C-9 • XC-10 • Y1C-11 • Y1C-12 • C-13 (Not assigned) • C-14 • C-15 • C-16 • Y1C-17 • C-18 • C-19 • C-20 • C-21 • Y1C-22 • Y1C-23 • Y1C-24 • Y1C-25 • C-26 • C-27 • C-28 • C-29 • YC-30 • C-31 • C-32 • C-33 • C-34 • XC-35 • C-36 • C-37 • C-38 • C-39 • C-40 • C-41 • C-42 • UC-43 • C-44 • C-45 • C-46 • C-47 • C-48 • C-49 • C-50 • C-51 • C-52 • C-53 • C-54 • C-55 • C-56 • C-57 • C-58 • C-59 • C-60 • UC-61 • C-62 • C-63 • C-64 • C-65 • C-66 • UC-67 • C-68 • C-69 • UC-70/A/B/C/D • UC-71 • UC-72 • C-73 • C-74 • C-75 • C-76 • UC-77 • C-78 • C-79 • C-80 • UC-81 • C-82 • C-83 • C-84 • UC-85 • C-86 • C-87 • C-88 • C-89 • C-90 • C-91 • UC-92 • C-93 • UC-94 • UC-95 • UC-96 • C-97 • C-98 • XC-99 • UC-100 • UC-101 • C-102 • UC-103 • C-104 • C-105 • C-106 • C-107 • C-108 • C-109 • C-110 • C-111 • XC-112 • XC-113 • XC-114 • XC-115 • XC-116 • C-117 • C-118 • C-119 • XC-120 • C-121 • YC-122 • C-123 • C-124 • YC-125 • LC-126 • C-127 • C-128 • YC-129 • C-130 • C-131 • C-132 • C-133 • YC-134 • C-135 • C-136 • C-137 • C-138 (Not assigned) • C-139 (Not assigned) • C-140 • C-141 • XC-142


The article below was taken from.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lockheed_L-10_ElectraThe Lockheed Model 10 Electra was a twin-engine, all-

metal monoplane airliner developed by the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation in the 1930s to compete with the Boeing 247 and Douglas DC-2. The aircraft gained considerable fame as it was flown by Amelia Earhart on her ill-fated around-the-world expedition in 1937.

Contents [hide]
1 Design and development
2 Operational history
3 Variants
4 Operators
4.1 Civil operators
4.2 Military operators
5 Survivors
6 Specifications (Electra 10A)
7 See also
8 References
9 External links

[edit] Design and development

Clarence “Kelly” Johnson testing an Electra model with single vertical tail in the University of Michigan’s wind tunnel.Some of Lockheed’s wooden designs, such as the Orion, had been built by Detroit Aircraft Corporation with metal fuselages. However, the Electra was Lockheed’s first all-metal and twin-engine design by Hall Hibbard. Most of the structure is 7075 Aluminum alloy with 2024 Aluminum alloy used for skin panels and bulkhead webs subjected to tension loads through pressurization.[1] The name Electra came from a star in the Pleiades. The prototype made its first flight on February 23, 1934 with Marshall Headle at the controls.

Wind tunnel work on the Electra was undertaken at the University of Michigan. Much of the work was performed by a student assistant, Clarence Johnson. He suggested two changes be made to the design: changing the single tail to double tails (later a Lockheed trademark), and deleting oversized wing fillets. Both of these suggestions were incorporated into production aircraft. Upon receiving his master’s degree, Johnson joined Lockheed as a regular employee, ultimately leading the Skunk Works in developing advanced aircraft such as the SR-71 Blackbird.

[edit] Operational history
After October 1934 when the US government banned single-engined aircraft for use in carrying passengers or in night flying, Lockheed was perfectly placed in the market with their new Model 10 Electra. Besides airline orders, a number of civil operators also purchased the new Model 10.[2] In May 1937, H.T. “Dick” Merrill and J.S. Lambie accomplished a round-trip crossing of the Atlantic Ocean. The feat was declared the first round-trip commercial crossing of that ocean. It won them the Harmon Trophy. On the eastbound trip, they carried newsreels of the crash of the Hindenburg, and on the return trip, they brought photographs of the coronation of King George VI. Probably the most famous use of the Electra was the highly modified Model 10E flown by aviatrix Amelia Earhart. In July 1937, she disappeared in her Electra during an attempted round-the-world flight.[2]

Many Electras and their design descendants (the Model 12 Electra Junior and Model 14 Super Electra) were pressed into military service during World War II, for instance the USAAF’s C-36. By the end of the war, the Electra design was obsolete, although many smaller airlines and charter services continued to operate Electras into the 1970s.[2]

Lockheed Y1C-36
Lockheed Y1C-37
Lockheed XC-35The Electra was produced in several variants, for both civilian and military customers. Lockheed built a total of 149 Electras.

Electra 10-A
Powered by two Pratt & Whitney R-985 Wasp Junior SB, 450 hp (336 kW) each 101 produced.
Three built for the U.S. Army Air Corps as Y1C-36, redesignated as C-36 in 1938 and as UC-36 in 1943.
Fifteen impressed by the U.S. Army Air Forces as C-36A, re-designated as UC-36A in 1943.
Three built as XR2O-1 / R2O-1 for the U.S. Secretary of the Navy.
One built as Y1C-37 for the Chief of the National Guard Bureau, redesignated as C-37 in 1938 and as UC-37 in 1943.
Electra 10-B
Powered by Wright R-975-E3 Whirlwind, 440 hp (340 kW) each 18 produced
Seven impressed by the U.S. Army Air Forces as C-36C, re-designated as UC-36C in 1943.
One built as XR3O-1 for the U.S. Coast Guard for use by the Secretary of the Treasury.
Electra 10-C
Powered by Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp SC1, 450 hp (336 kW) each eight produced for Pan American Airways.
Electra 10-D
Proposed military transport version none built.
Electra 10-E
Powered by Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp S3H1, 600 hp (450 kW) each 15 produced. The version used by Amelia Earhart.
Five impressed by the U.S. Army Air Forces as C-36B, re-designated as UC-36B in 1943.
XC-35
Experimental pressurized research model powered by turbocharged Pratt & Whitney XR-1340-43, 550 hp (410 kW) each. The one production model was tested for the War Department by Lieutenant Ben Kelsey. For this work, the Army Air Corps was awarded the 1937 Collier Trophy. The XC-35 is currently in storage in the collection of the National Air and Space Museum.
Lockheed KXL1
A single Lockheed Model 10 Electra supplied to the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service for evaluation.
[edit] Operators
[edit] Civil operators
Australia
Ansett Airways
Guinea Airways, an Australian airline serving New Guinea.
MacRobertson-Miller Aviation
Qantas Empire Airways
Brazil
Aeronorte
Cruzeiro do Sul
Panair do Brasil
VARIG
Canada
Canadian Airways
Trans-Canada Air Lines
Chile
LAN Chile
Cuba
Compañia Cubana de Aviación
Mexico
Compañía Mexicana de Aviación
Netherlands
KLM West Indies Section
New Zealand
Union Airways of New Zealand
National Airways Corporation
Poland
LOT Polish Airlines operated ten aircraft between 1936 and 1939.
Romania
LARES
United Kingdom
British Airways Ltd. (not to be confused with the present-day British Airways)
United States
Braniff Airways
Chicago and Southern Air Lines
Continental Air Lines
Delta Air Lines
Eastern Air Lines
Mid-Continent Airlines (formerly Hanford Airlines)
National Airlines
Northeast Airlines (formerly Boston-Maine/Central Vermont Airways)
Northwest Airlines
Pacific Alaska Airways, which became the Alaska division of Pan American Airways
Wisconsin Central Airlines
Venezuela
Línea Aeropostal Venezolana
Yugoslavia
Aeroput

Lockheed Electra 10A in Royal Air Force service
U.S. Navy XR2O-1 Argentina
Argentine Air Force
Brazil
Brazilian Air Force
Canada
Royal Canadian Air Force
Honduras
Honduran Air Force
Spain
Spanish Air Force
United Kingdom
Royal Air Force
United States
United States Army Air Corps/Army Air Forces
United States Navy
United States Coast Guard
Venezuela
Venezuelan Air Force
Imperial Japanese Air Force (copy)
[edit] Survivors

Electra 10A “CF-TCC” in Trans-Canada Air Lines livery at the Western Canada Aviation Museum.Canada is the home of two Model 10As. The first aircraft in the Air Canada (then called Trans-Canada Air Lines) fleet was an Electra 10A, “TCA.” Two Electras were delivered to Trans-Canada Air Lines (TCA) in 1937. They were based in Winnipeg and used for pilot training. Trans-Canada Air Lines ordered three more for transcontinental service “CF-TCC” was one of those three. These former TCA machines and other 10As were acquired by the RCAF during Second World War, and later sold to private operators.

TCA survived into the 1960s when Ann Pellegreno between 7 June and 10 July 1967 flew TCA on a round-the-world flight to commemorate Amelia Earhart’s last flight in 1937. The Canada Aviation Museum acquired this aircraft after the commemorative flight. Manufactured in 1937, the Museum example was the first new aircraft purchased by Trans-Canada Air Lines and served with the company until transferred to the RCAF in 1939. Sold in 1941 to a private operator, it was flown until 1967 by various owners. Air Canada restored the aircraft in 1968 and donated it to the Museum.
TCC was another former Trans-Canada Air Lines original. CF-TCC was found in Florida by a vacationing Air Canada employee in the early 1980s. Arrangements were made for it to be brought back to Winnipeg where it was restored. It was flown across Canada in 1987 to commemorate Air Canada’s 50th Anniversary. Air Canada maintains the aircraft and uses it to promote the airline. The aircraft was placed on display at Expo 86 after recreating the original TCA cross-country flight in 1937 and continues to be displayed at air shows and conferences. In 2006, it was flown from Toronto to Washington DC for the annual “Airliners International” Show.[3] For most of the year, TCC resides at the Western Canada Aviation Museum where it is one of the feature aircraft displayed.
Believed that TCC was formerly N239PB operated by Provincetown-Boston Airlines.

Two Model 10 Electras are also preserved in New Zealand’s Museum of Transport and Technology at Auckland. Another Auckland-based Electra, owned by Kaipara Aviation Trust, is under restoration to flying condition.

A military version designated as UC-36A Electra (s/n 43-56638, civilian registration N4963C) is on display at the Pima Air and Space Museum in Tucson, Arizona. Another military version designated AC-35 Electra is on display at the Udvar-Hazy Center of the National Air and Space Museum in Chantilly, Virginia.

A Model 10A Electra, Serial no. 1037, made in 1935, is on display in the Science Museum (London) in the “Making the Modern World Gallery”.

Electra 10A, serial no. 1052 is undergoing final restoration while on display at the New England Air Museum in Windsor Locks, Connecticut. Although originally a USN XR20-1 (BuNo 0267), it is painted in Northwest Airlines colors. At one point it was intended to use this machine for a recreation of the Earhart flight but it required too much work.[4] N38BB is on display at Western Aerospace Museum in Oakland, CA and is scheduled for restoration in the near future. This aircraft was originally supposed to be restored and cast for a role in the new Amelia Earhart movie but a deal could not be made with producers and a Lockheed 12 was used instead. Believe N38BB was formally N38PB operated by Provincetown-Boston Airlines.

[edit] Specifications (Electra 10A)
General characteristics

Crew: 2
Capacity: 10 passengers
Length: 38 ft 7 in (11.8 m)
Wingspan: 55 ft 0 in (16.8 m)
Height: 10 ft 1 in (3.1 m)
Wing area: 458 ft² (42.6 m²)
Empty weight: 6,454 lb (2,930 kg)
Loaded weight: 10,500 lb (4,760 kg)
Powerplant: 2× Pratt & Whitney R-985 Wasp Junior SB, 450 hp (340 kW) each
Performance

Maximum speed: 202 mph (325 km/h)
Range: 713 mi (1,150 km)
Service ceiling: 19,400 ft (5,910 m)
Rate of climb: 1,000 ft/min (300 m/min)
Wing loading: 22.9 lb/ft² (111.7 kg/m²)
Power/mass: 11.7 lb/hp (142 W/kg)
[edit] See also

Lockheed Model 12 Electra Junior
Lockheed Model 14 Super Electra

Beechcraft Model 18
Boeing 247
Douglas DC-2
Barkley-Grow T8P-1
Avro Anson
Airspeed Oxford
Caudron C.440
SAI KZ IV

List of military aircraft of the United States
List of military aircraft of the United States (naval)
List of Lockheed aircraft

[edit] References
This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations where appropriate. (June 2009)

Notes
1.^ “Airliners of the World: Electra.” flightglobal.com. Retrieved: February 3, 2010.
2.^ a b c Winchester 2004, p. 188
3.^ “New Horizons.” achorizons.ca. Retrieved: February 3, 2010.
4.^ “New England Air Museum.” http://www.neam.org. Retrieved: 1 August 2010.
Bibliography
Francillon, René J. Lockheed Aircraft since 1913. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1987. ISBN 0-85177-835-6.
Garrison, Peter. “Head Skunk”. Air & Space Magazine, March 2010.
Winchester, Jim, ed. “Lockheed 10 Electra”. Civil Aircraft (The Aviation Factfile). London: Grange Books plc, 2004. ISBN 1-84013-642-1.
[edit] External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Lockheed Model 10 Electra

XC-35 in the collection of the National Air and Space Museum
XC-35 from National Museum of the United States Air Force
Lockheed Electra 10A Restoration
[show]v • d • eLockheed and Lockheed Martin aircraft

Manufacturer
designations Basic Model Numbers L-1 · L-2 · L-3 · L-4 · L-5 · L-7 · L-8 · L-9 · L-10 · L-11 · L-012 · (L-013 not assigned) · L-014 · L-015 · L-016 · L-017 · L-018 · L-019 · L-020 · L-021 · L-022 · L-023 · L-024 · (L-025 not assigned) · L-026 · L-027 · (L-028 not assigned) · L-029 · L-030 · L-031 · L-032 · L-033 · L-034 · L-035 · (L-036 not assigned) · L-037 · (L-038 and L-039 not assigned) · L-040 · L-041 · L-042 · L-044 · L-045 · L-049 · L-050 · L-051 · L-052 · L-060 · L-061 · L-062 · L-075 · L-080 · L-081 · L-082 · L-083 · L-084 · L-085 · L-086 · L-087 · L-088 · L-089 · L-090 · L-091 · L-092 · L-093 · L-094 · L-092 · L-099 · L-100 · L-133 · L-193 · L-245 · L-246 · L-300 · L-301 · L-329 · L-351 · L-382 · L-500 · L-645

Lockheed-California
Temporary Design Numbers CL-282 · CL-288 · CL-295 · CL-320 · CL-325 · CL-329 · CL-346 · CL-379 · CL-400 · CL-407 · CL-475 · CL-595 · CL-704 · CL-760 · CL-823 · CL-901 · CL-915 · CL-934 · CL-981 · CL-984 · CL-985 · CL-1026 · CL-1195 · CL-1200 · CL-1400 · CL-1600 · CL-1700 · CL-1800 · CL-1980

By role Airliners and civil transports Vega · Sirius · Altair · Orion · Electra · Electra Junior · Super Electra · Lodestar · Constellation · Saturn · Electra · L-402 · JetStar · L-100 · L-1011

Military transports Y1C-12 · Y1C-17 · Y1C-23 · Y1C-25 · C-36 · C-37 · C-40 · C-56 · C-57 · C-59 · C-60 · C-63 · C-66 · C-69 · UC-85 · UC-101 · C-104 · C-111 · C-121 · C-130 / C-130J / HC-130 / LC-130 / MC-130 · C-139 · C-140 · C-141 · C-5 · JO · XRO · R2O · R3O · XR4O · R5O · R6O / R6V · R7O / R7V · R8V / GV / UV · TriStar

Attack and bombers Y1A-9 · A-28 · A-29 · XB-30 · B-34 · B-37 · FB-22 · AC-130

Drones Q-5 · Q-12 / D-21 · MQM-105 · RQ-3 · RQ-170
See also: DC-130

EW and reconnaissance O-56 · F-4 · F-5 · F-14 · YO-3 · EC-121 · EC-130 / EC-130E / EC-130H · WC-130 · EP-3 · RB-69 · U-2 / TR-1 · A-12 · SR-71 · PO / WV

Fighters XFM-2 · XPB-3 · YP-24 · P-38 · XP-49 · XP-58 · P/F-80 · XF-90 · F-94 · F-97 · F-104 · F-117 · F-16 · YF-22 · F-22 · F-35 · FO · XFV

Helicopters CL-475 · XH-51 · AH-56 · VH-71

Maritime patrol PBO · PV · P2V · P-2 · P3V · P-3 · P-7 · S-3 · CP-122 · CP-140

Trainers AT-18 · T-33 · T-40 · TO / TV · T2V / T-1

Experimental M-21 · NF-104A · XC-35 · XF-104 · VZ-10 / XV-4 · X-7 · X-17 · QT-2/QT-2PC/X-26B · X-27 · X-33 · X-35 · X-44 · X-55

Names Air Express · Aquila · Altair · Aurora · Big Dipper · Chain Lightning · Cheyenne · Constellation · Constitution · Electra (Model 10) · Electra (Model 88) · Electra Junior · Excalibur · Explorer · Galaxy · Hercules · Hudson · Hummingbird · JetStar · Kestrel · Kingfisher · Lightning · Little Dipper · Lodestar · Neptune · Orion (Model 9) · Orion (Model 85) · Raptor · Saturn · SeaStar · Sentinel · Shooting Star · Sirius · Starfighter · Starfire · Starlifter · Super Electra · Tristar · Vega · Ventura · Viking · Warning Star

[show]v • d • eUSAAS/USAAC/USAAF/USAF transport designations 1925–1962

Main sequence
1925-1962 C-1 • C-2 • C-3 • C-4 • C-5 • C-6 • C-7 • C-8 • C-9 • XC-10 • Y1C-11 • Y1C-12 • C-13 (Not assigned) • C-14 • C-15 • C-16 • Y1C-17 • C-18 • C-19 • C-20 • C-21 • Y1C-22 • Y1C-23 • Y1C-24 • Y1C-25 • C-26 • C-27 • C-28 • C-29 • YC-30 • C-31 • C-32 • C-33 • C-34 • XC-35 • C-36 • C-37 • C-38 • C-39 • C-40 • C-41 • C-42 • UC-43 • C-44 • C-45 • C-46 • C-47 • C-48 • C-49 • C-50 • C-51 • C-52 • C-53 • C-54 • C-55 • C-56 • C-57 • C-58 • C-59 • C-60 • UC-61 • C-62 • C-63 • C-64 • C-65 • C-66 • UC-67 • C-68 • C-69 • UC-70/A/B/C/D • UC-71 • UC-72 • C-73 • C-74 • C-75 • C-76 • UC-77 • C-78 • C-79 • C-80 • UC-81 • C-82 • C-83 • C-84 • UC-85 • C-86 • C-87 • C-88 • C-89 • C-90 • C-91 • UC-92 • C-93 • UC-94 • UC-95 • UC-96 • C-97 • C-98 • XC-99 • UC-100 • UC-101 • C-102 • UC-103 • C-104 • C-105 • C-106 • C-107 • C-108 • C-109 • C-110 • C-111 • XC-112 • XC-113 • XC-114 • XC-115 • XC-116 • C-117 • C-118 • C-119 • XC-120 • C-121 • YC-122 • C-123 • C-124 • YC-125 • LC-126 • C-127 • C-128 • YC-129 • C-130 • C-131 • C-132 • C-133 • YC-134 • C-135 • C-136 • C-137 • C-138 (Not assigned) • C-139 (Not assigned) • C-140 • C-141 • XC-142


Contents

The United States Army Air Forces commissioned the DC-6 project as the XC-112 in 1944. The Air Force wanted an expanded, pressurized version of the popular C-54 Skymaster transport with improved engines. By the time the XC-112 flew, the war was over, and the USAAF had rescinded its requirement.

Douglas converted its prototype into a civil transport (redesignated YC-112A, having significant differences from subsequent production DC-6 aircraft) and delivered the first production DC-6 in March 1947. However, a series of mysterious in-flight fires (including the fatal crash of United Airlines Flight 608) grounded the DC-6 fleet later that year. The cause was found to be a fuel vent located adjacent to the cabin cooling turbine intake. All DC-6s in service were modified to correct the problem, and the fleet was flying again after just four months on the ground.


Douglas C-54 Skymaster

HC-54D
- úprava pro záchrannou službu, později přeznačené na SC-54D.

JC-54D
- nouzová úprava pro sledování návratu kabin kosmických lodí, upraveno 9 letadel.

SC-54D
- úprava pro vyhledávání a záchranu letadel, upraveno bylo 38 letadel, později označeno jako HC-54D

TC-54D
- úprava pro výcvik osádek vícemotorových letadel

VC-54D
- úprava pro přepravu VIP pasažérů

WC-54D
- úprava pro průzkum počasí

C-54E
- rychlá úprava pro dopravu paliva, upraveno bylo 125 letadel

AC-54E
- úprava původních C-54E pro airolinky, v roce 1962 byly přeznačeny na EC-54-E

EC-54E
- přeznačené AC-54E

HC-54E
- přeznačené SC-54E (rok 1962)

SC-54E
- úprava pro námořní záchrannou službu, v roce 1962 přeznačeny na HC-54E

VC-54E
- úprava pro dopravu personálu

XC-54F
- projekt výsadkového letounu, k výrobě nedošlo

C-54G
- shodné s verzí C-54E, pouze jiná verze motorů P&W R-2000, rok 1945

HC-54G
- přeznačené SC-54G (rok 1962)

JC-54G
- provizorní testovací úprava letounu C-54G

SC-54G
- úprava pro námořní záchrannou službu, v roce 1962 přeznačeny na HC-54G

VC-54G
- úprava pro přepravu VIP pasažérů nebo personálu

C-54GM
- označení DC-4 vyrobených v Kanadě

C-54H
- výsadková verze, nebyla vyráběna

C-54J
- projekt pro přepravu personálu, k výrobě nedošlo

XC-54K
- jeden prototyp s dlouhým doletem, poháněn motory Wright R-1820

C-54L
- jeden letoun C-54A, na kterém byl testován upravený palivový systém

C-54M
- úprava pro dopravu uhlí do Berlína vzdušným mostem, upraveno 38 letadel

MC-54M
- speciální úprava pro přepravu nemocných a zraněných, 30 letadel

VC-54N
- přeznačené námořní R5D-1Z (rok 1962)

C-54P
- přeznačené námořní R5D-2 (rok 1962)

VC-54P
- přeznačené námořní R5D-2Z (rok 1962)

C-54Q
- přeznačené námořní R5D-3 (rok 1962)

VC-54Q
- přeznačené námořní R5D-3Z (rok 1962)

C-54R
- přeznačené námořní R5D-4R (rok 1962)

C-54S
- přeznačené námořní R5D-5 (rok 1962)

VC-54S
- přeznačené námořní R5D-5Z (rok 1962)

C-54T
- přeznačené námořní R5D-5R (rok 1962)

EC-54U
- přeznačené námořní R5D-4 se speciální elektronikou (rok 1962)

RC-54V
- přeznačené námořní R5D-3P (rok 1962)

R5D-1
- letoun C-54A upravený pro US Navy, 65 letadel

R5D-1C
- upravené R5D-1 na standart C-54B

R5D-1F
- upravené R5D-1 pro přepravu námořního personálu, v roce 1962 přeznačen na VC-54N

R5D-1Z
- dočasné použité označení pro R5D-1F

R5D-2
- 30 letadel C-54B upravených pro službu v US Navy, v roce 1962 přeznačen na C-54P

R5D-2F
- upravené R5D-2 pro přepravu námořního personálu, v roce 1962 přeznačen na VC-54P

R5D-2Z
- dočasné použité označení pro R5D-2F

R5D-3
- letoun C-54D upravený pro US Navy, 95 letadel, v roce 1962 přeznačen na C-54Q

R5D-3P
- úprava pro fotografický průzkum, v roce 1962 přeznačen na RC-54V

R5D-3Z
- úprava letounu R5D-3 pro dopravu námořního personálu, v roce 1962 přeznačen na VC-54Q

R5D-4
- C-54E upravené pro službu u US Navy, 20 letadel, v roce 1962 přeznačen na EC-54U

R5D-4R
- úprava R5D-4 přo přepravu osob, v roce 1962 přeznačen na C-54R

R5D-5
- R5D-2 a R5D3 po výměně motorů, přibližně odpovídal verzi C-54G, v roce 1962 přeznačen na C-54S

R5D-5R
- úprava R5D-5 pro dopravu osob, v roce 1962 přeznačen na C-54T

R5D-5Z
- úprava R5D-5 pro přepravu osádek a personálu, v roce 1962 přeznačen na VC-54S

R5D-6
- C-54J pro dopravu osob pro námořnictvo, k výrobě nedošlo

XC-112
- přetlaková verze C-54B s motory P&W R-2800, nebyl vyráběn

XC-112A
- jako XC-112, vývoj DC-6

XC-114
- letoun C-54E s motory Allison V-1710

XC-115
- XC-114 poháněný motory Packard V-1650, nebyl vyráběn

XC-116
- XC-114 s tepelným odledovacím zařízením pouze testy na jediném letounu

Skymaster I
- C-54D užívané RAF, jednalo se o 22 letadel, 10 letadel bylo vráceno USAAF


The C-47 was vital to the success of many Allied campaigns, in particular those at Guadalcanal and in the jungles of New Guinea and Burma where the C-47 (and its naval version, the R4D) made it possible for Allied troops to counter the mobility of the light-traveling Japanese army. Additionally, C-47s were used to airlift supplies to the embattled American forces during the Battle of Bastogne. But possibly its most influential role in military aviation was flying "The Hump" from India into China. The expertise gained flying "The Hump" would later be used in the Berlin Airlift, in which the C-47 would play a major role, until being replaced by the C-54.

In Europe, the C-47 and a specialized paratroop variant, the C-53 Skytrooper, were used in vast numbers in the later stages of the war, particularly to tow gliders and drop paratroops. In the Pacific, with careful use of the island landing strips of the Pacific Ocean, C-47s were even used for ferrying soldiers serving in the Pacific theater back to the United States.

C-47s in British and Commonwealth service took the name Dakota, from the acronym "DACoTA" for Douglas Aircraft Company Transport Aircraft. [ 1 ] The C-47 also earned the informal nickname Gooney Bird during the European theater of operations. [ 2 ]

The USAF Strategic Air Command had C-47 Skytrains in service from 1946 through 1967.

After World War II Douglas structurally modified a number of the early Navy R4D aircraft and the US Navy re-designated the modified aircraft as R4D-8, later C-117D, sometimes referred to as the Super Dakota.

The Pakistan Air Force used C-47 Dakota cargo planes which it used to transport supplies to the Pakistan Army soldiers fighting in the Indo-Pakistan War of 1947 against India.

Several C-47 variations were used in the Vietnam War by the United States Air Force, including three advanced electronic warfare variations which were sometimes called "Electric Gooneys" designated EC-47N,EC-47P,or EC-47Qs depending on the engine used. [ 3 ] EC-47's were also operated by the Vietnamese, Laotian and Cambodian Air Forces. [ 4 ] . A gunship variation, utilizing three 7.62mm miniguns, designated AC-47 "Spooky" often nicknamed "Puff the Magic Dragon" was also deployed. [ 2 ]

The Royal Canadian Air Force and later, the Canadian Air Force employed the C-47 for transportation, navigation and radar training, and search & rescue operations from the 1940s to the 1980s. [ 5 ]

After World War II thousands of surplus C-47s were converted to civil airline use, some remaining in operation in 2009.


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ダグラス DC-3

僅か半年余りで急ピッチの開発・製作が進められ、1935年12月17日に初飛行した。DC-2の拡大設計から始まったが、実際には機体の大部分を新設計せねばならなかった実情からすれば、これはかなりの早業である。この寝台機は、Douglas Sleeper Transport、略してDSTの名称で呼ばれた。DSTは14名分の寝台とキッチンを備え、途中一度の燃料補給のみで北米大陸を横断できる長距離快速機で、1936年6月25日に路線就航し、アメリカン航空の看板旅客機となった。

DC-3 編集

DST開発中から座席型輸送機の製作も計画されており、DST完成後すぐに派生型として、この広いキャビンを活用した通常座席型バージョンが開発された。これがDC-3である。DSTを試作済みであるので座席型の試作機は製作せず、当初から生産型としてロールアウトした。1936年9月にアメリカン航空の手で定期路線に初就航したDC-3は、短期間のうちに優れた運航実績をあげた。

第二次世界大戦 編集

C-47 スカイトレイン 編集

アメリカ陸軍航空隊は第二次世界大戦に際し、既存のダグラスDC-3を民間航空会社から139機徴用して軍用に用いたが、1941年にはDC-3の輸送機バージョンを正式に軍用輸送機として採用し、制式名称をC-47とした。

以後戦時中を通じて全力で生産が行われ、1945年までに約1万機を生産した。これらはイギリス空軍や南アフリカ国防軍にも供与され、「ダコタ」(Dakota)の呼称を与えられた。派生型として兵員輸送に重点を置いた設計のC-53 スカイトルーパー(Skytrooper)も生産された。その用途は幅広く、兵器・食料や兵員の輸送に用いられたほか、欧州戦線では空挺部隊のグライダー牽引機にも用いられたほどである。連合軍の主力輸送機として世界中の戦場を飛行し、戦闘による損失も多数生じた。

日本のDC-3生産 編集

エンジンは三菱の「金星」に変更され、日本海軍から零式輸送機(L2D2)として、大東亜戦争における日米開戦からわずか1年前の1940年(昭和15年)に制式採用された。零式輸送機は、一〇〇式輸送機(MC輸送機) [注釈 2] と比べ最高速度・巡航速度で大きく劣るものの、一方では搭載量では勝るなど性能は比較的優秀であった。また零式輸送機は、エンジン換装によりカタログデータ上ではC-47を一部上回っていた(この零式輸送機について「DC-3のデッドコピー」という説も流布しているが、実際には上記の通り正式なライセンス生産に出自を発している)。太平洋戦争中期からは中島飛行機も一時生産を行った。昭和飛行機と中島飛行機によって、1945年(昭和20年)までに合計486機が製造された。

ソ連のDC-3生産 編集

ダグラス社に派遣された経験もあった技術者ボリース・リスノーフは、DC-3をもとに、ソ連の寒冷地・不整地向けに小改良を加え、ソ連製エンジンを搭載した輸送機「PS-84」を開発する。この機体はアエロフロート航空で運航された後、1942年以降にLi-2の名称で軍用輸送機として量産され、対ドイツ戦で用いられた。簡易な爆撃機(爆弾を1 tまで搭載)としての運用も行われた。


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