Amberjack SS-522 - History

Amberjack SS-522 - History


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Amberjack SS-522

Amberjack

II

(SS-522: dp. 1,570 (surf.), 2,415 (subm.); 1. 311'8", b. 27'3" dr. 15'5" (mean) s. 20.25 k. (surf.), 8.75 k. (subm.), cpl. 81 a. 10 21" tt., 1 5', 1 40mm.; cl. Tech)

The second Amberjack (SS-522) was laid down on 8 February 1944 at the Boston Navy Yard; launched on 15 December 1944 sponsored by Mrs. Dina C. Lang; and commissioned on 4 March 1946, Comdr. William B. Parham in command.

Following shakedown training in the West Indies and in the Gulf of Mexico, Amberjack reported on 17 June for duty with Submarine Squadron (SubRon) 8. Operating out of the Submarine Base, New London, Conn., she conducted training missions in the North Atlantic, and, in November 1946, made a cruise above the Arctic Circle. In January 1947, the submarine entered the Portsmouth (N. H.) Naval Shipyard for extensive modifications and thereafter spent about a year undergoing a "Guppy" II conversion (from greater underwater propulsive power) during which her hull and sail were streamlined and additional batteries and a snorkel were installed to increase her submerged speed, endurance, and maneuverability. In January 1948, she reported for duty with SubRon 4 based at Key West, Fla. She operated along the east coast and in the West Indies for a little more than 11 years. Her schedule included the development of tactics and independent ship exercises, type training, periodic overhauls and fleet exercises. During this period, she also visited numerous Caribbean ports. In July of 1952, Arnberjack was transferred to the newly established SubRon 12, though she remained based at Key West and her employment continued as before.

Early in August 1959, after more than 11 years of operations out of Key West, the submarine's home port was changed to Charleston, S.C. She arrived there on the 8th and reported for duty with her former squadron, SubRon 4. While working out of her new home Fort, Amberjack's operations remained much as they had been before with one significant difference: she began making deployments to European waters. In August, September, and October of 1960, the submarine participated in a NATO exercise before making a week-long port visit to Portsmouth, England. She returned to Charleston late in October and resumed her normal routine. Between May and September of 1961 the warship deployed to the Mediterranean Sea for duty in the 6th Fleet. After a three-year interlude operating along the east coast and in the West Indies, Amberjack made another Mediterranean cruise between 7 July and 1 November 1964. She spent the ensuing 29 months working out of Charleston. In 1967, the submarine made a three-month deployment to the Mediterranean between 24 April and 24 July. On 2 September 1969 following another 25 months of operations along the east coast and in the West Indies, she embarked upon her last Charlestonbased tour of duty in European waters during which she participated in another NATO exercise with unuts of the British Canadian, and Dutch navies. At the conclusion of the exercise Amberjack visited a number of ports in northern Europe before returmng to Charleston on 12 December 1969.

On 9 July 1970, Amberjack arrived in her new home port Key West, her base for the remainder of her service in the American Navy. She made her last deployment to the Mediterranean between 27 November 1972 and 30 March 1973. On 17 October 1973, Amberjack was decommissioned at Key West, and her name was struck from the Navy list. That same day, she was transferred to the Brazilian Navy and commissioned as Ceara (S-12). As of the end of 1984, she was still active in the Brazilian Navy.


Following shakedown training in the West Indies and in the Gulf of Mexico, Amberjack reported on 17 June for duty with SubRon8. Operating out of the Submarine Base, New London, Connecticut, she conducted training missions in the North Atlantic, and, in November 1946, made a cruise above the Arctic Circle. In January 1947, the submarine entered the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard for extensive modifications and thereafter spent about a year undergoing a Greater Underwater Propulsion Power Program (GUPPY) conversion during which her hull and sail were streamlined and additional batteries and a snorkel were installed to increase her submerged speed endurance, and maneuverability. In January 1948, she reported for duty with SubRon4 based at Key West, Florida. She operated along the east coast and in the West Indies for a little more than 11 years. Her schedule included the development of tactics and independent ship exercises, type training, periodic overhauls, and fleet exercises. During this period, she also visited numerous Caribbean Sea ports. In July 1952, Amberjack was transferred to the newly established SubRon12, though she remained based at Key West and her employment continued as before.

Early in August 1959, after more than 11 years of operations out of Key West, the submarine's home port was changed to Charleston, South Carolina. She arrived there on 8 August and reported for duty with her former squadron, SubRon4. While working out of her new home port, Amberjack's operations remained much as they had been before with one significant difference: she began making deployments to European waters. In August, September and October 1960, the submarine participated in a NATO exercise before making a week-long port visit to Portsmouth, England. She returned to Charleston late in October and resumed her normal duties. Between May and September 1961, the warship deployed to the Mediterranean Sea for duty in the Sixth Fleet. After a three-year interlude operating along the east coast and in the West Indies, Amberjack made another Mediterranean cruise between 7 July and 1 November 1964. She spent the ensuing 29 months working out of Charleston. In 1967, the submarine made a three-month deployment to the Mediterranean between 23 April and 24 July. The submarine was reportedly in the vicinity of the USS Liberty (AGTR-5) and filmed the attack of 8 June 1967 on the ship by IDF planes. This claim has not been substantiated. On 2 September 1969, following another 25 months of operations along the east coast and in the West Indies, she embarked upon her last Charleston-based tour of duty in European waters during which she participated in another NATO exercise with units of the British, Canadian, and Dutch navies. At the conclusion of the exercise, Amberjack visited a number of ports in northern Europe before returning to Charleston on 12 December 1969.


S Ceará (S-14)

Nota: Este artigo é sobre o submarino S Ceará (S-14). Para outros significados, veja Ceará (desambiguação).

O S Ceará (S-14) foi um submarino da Classe Guanabara [ carece de fontes ? ] adquirido em 1973 para a Força de Submarinos da Marinha do Brasil. Deu baixa no serviço ativo em 1987. [ 1 ]

S Ceará (S-14)
(ex-USS Amberjack (SS-522))
Carreira Estados Unidos
Operador Marinha dos Estados Unidos
Fabricante Boston Navy Yard
Homônimo Peixe da família Carangidae do gênero Seriola
Batimento de quilha 8 de fevereiro de 1944
Lançamento 15 de dezembro de 1944
Comissionamento 4 de março de 1946
Descomissionamento 17 de outubro de 1973
Estado Retirado do registro em 17 de outubro de 1973
Destino Transferido para o Brasil 17 de outubro de 1973
Carreira Brasil
Nome S Ceará (S-14)
Operador Marinha do Brasil
Homônimo Estado do Ceará
Aquisição 17 de outubro de 1973 [ 1 ]
Descomissionamento 1987 [ 1 ]
Estado Desmanchado em 1992 [ 1 ]
Características gerais
Tipo de navio Submarino diesel-elétrico
Classe Sub-classe Corsair (Classe Tench) (USN)
Classe Guanabara (MB) [ carece de fontes ? ]
Deslocamento 1 870 t (4 120 000 lb) (carregado emerso) [ 1 ]
2 420 t (5 340 000 lb) (carregado imerso) [ 1 ]
Comprimento 93,7 m (307 ft) [ 1 ]
Boca 8,3 m (27,2 ft) [ 1 ]
Calado 5,5 m (18,0 ft) [ 1 ]
Propulsão 3 x motores Fairbanks Morse de 16 cilindros em V de 1 600 hp (1 190 kW) cada [ 1 ]
4 x geradores Allis Chalmers de 1 100 kW (1 480 hp) [ 1 ]
4 x motores elétricos Allis Chalmers de 2 700 hp (2 010 kW) [ 1 ]
1 x motor diesel auxiliar [ 1 ] e 1 x gerador auxiliar de 300 kW (402 hp) [ 1 ]
2 x eixos com hélices de quatro pás [ 1 ]
Velocidade 18 kn (33,3 km/h) (emerso) [ 1 ]
15 kn (27,8 km/h) (imerso) [ 1 ]
Autonomia 12 000 m.n. (22 200 km) à 10 kn (18,5 km/h) (emerso ou com snorkel) [ 1 ]
Profundidade 400 ft (122 m) [ 1 ]
Armamento 10 x tubos de torpedos de 533 mm (21,0 in), [ 1 ] capacidade para 24 torpedos [ 1 ]
Equipamentos especializados MAGE AN/WLR-1 [ 1 ]
Tripulação 83 (7 oficiais e 76 praças) [ 1 ]

O submarino serviu a Marinha dos Estados Unidos com o nome de USS Amberjack (SS-522).


The USS Flier Project

The Amberjack sat on her building ways on December 7, 1941. One of many planned submarines, she was soon finished, tested, commissioned and sent to the Pacific, where she and her sisters were, in many respects, the largest and most complete line of defense against the Japanese.

AMBERJACK just before her commissioning. navsource.org

Her first patrol was extremely successful for a new crew. AMBERJACK’s commanding officer, John Archibald Bole, had commanded the S-21 before the war, but the AMBERJACK was one of the new fleet boats, will all the luxuries the S-boats lacked: air conditioning, clothes washers, refrigerated food storage, and a bunk for (almost) every man. Amberjack, like her sisters, was also longer, wider, deeper diving, and farther ranging than the old S-boats. Bole was expected, especially with the new unrestricted warfare declaration for the submarine force, to go deep in Japanese territory and bring the war to the enemy before the surface fleet could even start to refloat and recover.

Her first patrol was amazingly successful. Leaving Pearl on 20 August, 1942, AMBERJACK headed for New Ireland and the Solomon Islands. Three days in, she fired at her first target, but the torpedoes missed. She didn’t miss her second chance, which came the next day, and broke the troop ship SHIROGANE MARU in two, sending her to the ocean’s floor.

Three weeks and two failed attack later (including AMBERJACK’s first thorough depth charge attack,) she fired two torpedoes at a coal freighter. One blew the bow open, but the ship doggedly cdrive herself forward, trying to escape. AMBERJACK took up the chase, with both vessels firing deck guns at each other an hour in. The freighter hoped to scare off her hunter, the Amberjack tried to finish the job. Both stayed too far out of range to do any damage.

The sun set, and AMBERJACK lost sight of her target. The freighter may have breathed a sigh of relief. But AMBERJACK’s new Radar system pinged the freighter 8,000 yards off the starboard bow. AMBERJACK moved closer, startling the freighter, who zigged out of the way of AMBERJACK’s first shot. Amberjack fired again, and caught her prey, the SENKAI MARU. She sank, many of her crew evacuating on lifeboats for nearby Kavieng.

A few days later, lurking in Kavieng Harbor, AMBERJACK fired at four vessels sitting anchored, hitting and sinking the Tonen Maru II. A whale (slaughter) factory ship now converted tanker, it sank to the bottom of the harbor…which was too shallow to fully engulf the TONEN. Amberjack claimed her kill, believing the TONEN MARU too damaged to be used again.

(Indeed, five days later, the Allies, who had long since cracked the Japanese military’s secret codes, intercepted this message, which AMBERJACK included in her War Patrol Report:

Excerpt from War Patrol Report, First War Patrol, USS Amberjack, SS-219, page 18. From fold3.com. The Japanese eventually raised the TONEN MARU (II), and put her back to work. Submarine PINTADO put a permanent end to her on 22 August, 1944.

But now AMBERJACK was running into trouble. She decided “it was not advisable to linger around” (you think?) and headed to sea. But the calm seas betrayed her. AMBERJACK’s ballast tanks had started to leak under the pressure of the patrol’s many attacks and counterattack, and streams of bubbles trickled out of ballast tanks #2 adn #6. The planes guarding Kavieng Harbor tracked her down, dropping multiple depth charges, forcing AMBERJACK to stay down. In addition, the attack periscope was broken and nearly useless, and sonar had been knocked completely out, renderning AMBERJACK deaf (and to a submarine, half-blind as well).

Bole decided to head for the nearest safe port, Espritu Santo Island. While her own crew tried to repair her ballast tanks to get her safely to Australia, the Navy decided, “As long as you’re here, could you swing by…” AMBERJACK would transport aviation gas (in a modified fuel tank), bombs and fifteen pilots to Pacific battlefield Guadalcanal (and halfway there the Navy woudl say, “Wait, never mind, drop them off a Tulagi instead.” [1]

She returned to triumph at Brisbane, claiming three sinkings for her first patrol, a very respectable record.

Her second patrol was more disappointing. No torpedoes hit their targets (this was during the time the Mark XIV torpedoes were proving they had multiple problems) and AMBERJACK had several close calls. She returned to Brisbane on January 11, 1943, claiming no kills.

There was, however, an interesting surprise on this patorl, the morning of November 29, 1942.

Just south of Shortland Island, the AMBERJACK, patrolling submerged, saw a bizarre submarine. Before the war, all navies kept records on the silhouettes and capabilities of other navy’s ships. The Americans knew about the Japanese K and J type submarines (the submarines that acted as mother subs for the midget subs that attacked Pearl Harbor in conjunction with the airplanes on December 7, 1941. ) and had provided photographs and silhouettes of these submarines to American submarine crews.

But heading into Shortland’s south harbor, was a Japanese submarine AMBERJACK’s CO had never seen. She was too far away to attack, and moved so fast, AMBERJACK soon gave up the chase, but she looked so different, the CO drew a picture, complete with labels to show the unusual aspects of the submarine, and included it in the War Patrol Report. Here it is: Ship Contact #5, the strange submarine:

Taken from the Appendix of Second War Patrol, USS AMBERJACK, 1942-1943. from fold3.com. You can clearly see some of the unique aspects of what will later become known to the American's as a B-type Japanese Submarine. Image is larger, and more detailed. Click for larger copy.

As it would turn out, this was one of Japan’s newest submarines, the B1 Type submarine. They were similar to the Gato-class submarine the American Navy was using, in that they were numerous and the workhorses of the Japanese Submarine Force. But there were some interesting differences the Japanese were experimenting with.

The B1 type submarine (the I-15 in this case), which is the class of submarine AMBERJACK saws the morning of 29 November 1942. Wikipedia Commons.

That “island” in front of the conning tower? That’s an airplane hanger for a small scouting plane, the Yokosuka E14Y1 Glen Seaplane, which was used for scouting missions. AMBERJACK apparently wouldn’t see the collapsable airplane crane that was lashed to the foreward deck, and of course, the launching catapult was folded flush under the deck when the plane wasn’t in use.

How does a plane fit in there? They were modular, and the wings were removed and stowed alongside the body. This cross section, courtesy of this blog, shows how this submarine was put together.

Cross Section of a B1-type submarine, similar to the one spotted by AMBERJACK. From this blog

The B-type Japanese submarines were a really interesting bunch, and would accomplish a number of fascinating missions, including going to Europe, lifeguarding Japanese pilots…off Hawaii’s coast, and attacking the US Mainland (successfully).

The submarine AMBERJACK spotted that morning was likely the I-31, one of several submarines that were supplying the Japanese forces on Guadalcanal and other Solomon Island strongholds, by smuggling in men and supplies from Truck (Chuuk Atoll) to Guadalcanal, to Shortland Island, and back. I-31 was the only Japanese submarine to dock at Shortland, coming from the southerly direction of Guadalcanal, as AMBERJACK reported. I-31 was only 6 months old when she was spotted, and only had another six months or so to live. On 12 May, 1943, while running cargo between Japanese installations on the Alaskan Islands of Attu and Kiska, she fired a torpedo at the American Battleship, PENNSYLVANIA, survivor of Pearl Harbor. PENNSYLVANIA’s aerial escort dropped a smoke bomb to mark the submarine’s postition, and three nearby destroyers, the USS PHELPS, USS FARRAGUT ad USS EDWARDS hunted her down. Ten hours of relentless cat-and-mouse-and-depth-charges later, the I-31 was forced to surface–and cut down by EDWARDS’s guns. She sank in nearly 6,000 feet of water, and has not been discovered as of this date.

But all of that was in the future, and AMBERJACK, who spotted the strange new submarine I-31 that morning, had a shorter lifespan than the sub she’d just reported.

AMBERJACK’s third patrol was her final one, and what she did was pieced together by the Navy afterward.

She left Brisbane on January 26, 1943, to once again patrol the Solomon Islands and provide support for the ongoing Guadalcanal Campaign. The JApanese were frantically evacuating over 117,000 troops from Guadalcanal, and using submarines as cover. AMBERJACK’s mission would have involved reconnaissance in addition to “unrestricted warfare” (i.e. “If it flies a Japanese Flag and you can get a good shot, SINK IT!” On February 3, she radioed base, reporting that she’d made contact with a Japanese submarine south of Shortland Island (again) on Feb 1 (Was likely the I-9 running between Guadalcanal and Shortland, arriving at Shortland that day), and sunk a two masted schooner on the 3rd. The next day, the 4th, she radioed home to say she had hit a freighter, which as apparently carrying a large supply of explosives, with the results one would expect from blowing apart an explosives-laden freighter.

This sinking inspired this painting "Night Battle" by E.V. Vandos. Part of the Naval History Department. From navsource.org

However, in the process, A Lt. Stern was hit in the hand from gunfire from the freighter’s crew. When Pharmacist’s Mate Arthur Beeman ran to help the Lt., he was hit and killed.

The next day, she radioed to report that after her last report, she’d been chased and forced down by two determined Japanese destroyers. On surfacing, AMBERJACK discovered a Japanese Aviator floating in the sea. His plane had come down, and AMBERJACK took him aboard, intending to bring him back to Brisbane. (Apparently) in response to HQ’s question, AMBERJACK decided they did not need to replace their Pharmacist’s mate immediately, and would finish out their patrol.

It was the last message AMBERJACK ever sent.

For three week, HQ sent message after message to AMBERJACK, telling her to move here, or there, or perform reconnaissance on various islands. AMBERJACK never responded, but this wasn’t unusual: submarine CO’s were allowed to not respond if they felt the chance the Japanese would intercept a radio message and use it to track down a submarine was higher than the value of responding to a simple “move here”, message. But on March 5, with AMBERJACK’s scheduled patrol winding down, HQ ordered her to respond and check in.

Five more days passed, and AMBERJACK was due to arrive in port. Submarines were supposed to radio ahead with an ETA so the various aerial and sea patrols did not attack and sink a friendly submarine returning from patrol. AMBERJACK never showed.

The Navy decided that she must have been lost sometime after Valentine’s Day, 1943. The families would have to be told.

Then, fifteen days later, on March 25, military intelligence, still reading Japan’s “encrypted” radio messages, intercepted and decrypted a notification that proved to be AMBERJACK’s final chapter. She’d been lost on February 16, two days after her final message. The message, as it now appears in AMBERJACK’s file, appears below:

Taken from "Report of the Loss of AMBERJACK". From hnsa.org

AMBERJACK’s loss was publicly announced around 13 June, 1943, nearly four months after her loss.

In honor of AMBERJACK and her lost crew, AMBERJACK’s name was given to a new, planned TENCH-class submarine. Completed after the war, AMBERJACK (II) had a long and successful career during the Cold War. Eventually, she was sold to Brazil, who changed her name to the Ceara. I cannot find any publicly available documentation about AMBERJACK (II)’s disposition, so it is possible that she is still around somewhere in Brazil’s Naval dockyards.

AMBERJACK (II) following her GUPPY conversion ca. 1947-1948. navsource.org

In the 1970’s a memorial to AMBERJACK and her lost crew was erected in Charleston, South Carolina.

The Amberjack Memorial as it currently appears in Charleston, South Carolina. Image courtesy of Ted Kerwin, flickr.com. Creative Commons attribution license.

To date, her wreck has not been found or documented.

To the crew of the AMBERJACK, “May you rest your oars, sailor”. And Thank You.

[1] Tulagi is a small island just north of Guadalcanal, which the Marines had taken after a one-day battle the August 7, earlier that year. It also was the base to a PT-boat contingent, including one PT-109 and it’s soon to be commander, a young John Fitzgerald Kennedy.


Final Thoughts

Amberjack is an impressive company. James Seuss, the former Cole Haan CEO who oversaw the Nike merger, was also involved. Between Seuss and Kraljevich, it’s as if John Peters Avenger-assembled the shoe industry.

It’s therefore no surprise that their sustainability claims are more than just greenwashing, and that The Originals are so well-designed.

As far as hybrid shoes go, I fully recommend the Amberjack Originals. The design intelligently combines the athletic and the formal, and they’re comfortable right out of the box.

I know some strictly traditional gents are still holding out for a combination shoe that 100% looks like a dress shoe. However, I don’t think that the hybrid design components in The Originals are distracting, and they make them look pretty cool and unique too.

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About Karlton Miko Tyack

A lifelong watch enthusiast, Karlton has worked with quality timepieces of all price points and calibers, vintage and contemporary. He was born in LA, studied art history in Boston, and is a lover of rugby, football, and optimism.

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USS Amberjack (SS-522)

USS Amberjack (SS-522), a Tench-class submarine, was the second submarine of the United States Navy named for the amberjack, a vigorous sport fish found in the western Atlantic from New England to Brazil.

Her keel was laid down by the Boston Naval Shipyard of Boston, Massachusetts, on 8 February 1944. She was launched on 15 December 1944 sponsored by Mrs. Walter E. Lang, Jr., and commissioned on 4 March 1946, with Commander William B. Parham in command.

Following shakedown training in the West Indies and in the Gulf of Mexico, Amberjack reported on 17 June for duty with SubRon8. Operating out of the Submarine Base, New London, Connecticut, she conducted training missions in the North Atlantic, and, in November 1946, made a cruise above the Arctic Circle. In January 1947, the submarine entered the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard for extensive modifications and thereafter spent about a year undergoing a Greater Underwater Propulsion Power Program (GUPPY) conversion during which her hull and sail were streamlined and additional batteries and a snorkel were installed to increase her submerged speed endurance, and maneuverability. In January 1948, she reported for duty with SubRon4 based at Key West, Florida. She operated along the east coast and in the West Indies for a little more than 11 years. Her schedule included the development of tactics and independent ship exercises, type training, periodic overhauls, and fleet exercises. During this period, she also visited numerous Caribbean Sea ports. In July 1952, Amberjack was transferred to the newly established SubRon12, though she remained based at Key West and her employment continued as before.

Early in August 1959, after more than 11 years of operations out of Key West, the submarine's home port was changed to Charleston, South Carolina. She arrived there on 8 August and reported for duty with her former squadron, SubRon4. While working out of her new home port, Amberjack's operations remained much as they had been before with one significant difference: she began making deployments to European waters. In August, September and October 1960, the submarine participated in a NATO exercise before making a week-long port visit to Portsmouth, England. She returned to Charleston late in October and resumed her normal duties. Between May and September 1961, the warship deployed to the Mediterranean Sea for duty in the Sixth Fleet. After a three-year interlude operating along the east coast and in the West Indies, Amberjack made another Mediterranean cruise between 7 July and 1 November 1964. She spent the ensuing 29 months working out of Charleston. In 1967, the submarine made a three-month deployment to the Mediterranean between 23 April and 24 July. The submarine was reportedly in the vicinity of the USS Liberty (AGTR-5)and filmed the attack of 8 June 1967 on the ship by IDF planes. This claim has not been substantiated. On 2 September 1969, following another 25 months of operations along the east coast and in the West Indies, she embarked upon her last Charleston-based tour of duty in European waters during which she participated in another NATO exercise with units of the British, Canadian, and Dutch navies. At the conclusion of the exercise, Amberjack visited a number of ports in northern Europe before returning to Charleston on 12 December 1969.

On 9 July 1970, Amberjack arrived in her new home port, Key West, Florida, her base for the remainder of her service in the United States Navy. She made her last deployment to the Mediterranean between 27 November 1972, and 30 March 1973. On 17 October 1973, Amberjack was decommissioned at Key West, her name was struck from the Naval Vessel Register, was transferred to the Brazilian Navy, and was commissioned as Ceara (S-14).


Amberjack SS-522 - History

The SS-219 Amberjack was credited with sinking three ships and damaging two more. She was presumed lost on March 22, 1943.

History of the SS-219, U.S.S. Amberjack

Patrols
No:Captain:From:Date:Duration:Score (WT):JANACReturn:
1John A. Bole, Jr.Pearl Harbor9/3/42573/28,5002/5,200Brisbane
2John A. Bole, Jr.Brisbane11/42510/00/0Brisbane
3John A. Bole, Jr.Brisbane1/26/43 1/4,0000/0Lost 2/14-15/43

Crew lost on the SS-219 Amberjack

Mervin Wilcox Allmon
William Alexander Baker, Jr.
Paul Sherman Banister
Luther Vaughter Barr
Renato Bartoli
Arthur Castles Beeman*
Robert Pershing Blauvelt
John Archibald Bole, Jr.
John Frederick Bolze
Harold Joseph Brant
Henry Earl Brossy
Maurice Joseph Brousseau
Wilson Noble Buchan
Diego Cacciato, Jr.
Leland J. D. Caldwell
Elmer Ernest Chaffin
John Francis Cheney
Benjamin Lee Clark
James Leonard Coleman
William Edwin Coultas
Edward Shelton Davis
LeRoy Conrad Davis
James DeGroot
Arthur Maxon Demler
Donald Ducharme
Alton George Harlen Eastman
Ernest Joseph Everett
George Henry Gillard, Jr.
Thaddeus Gosciniak
John Wesley Hamilton
Lloyd Guy Henderson
Don Laffaette Hiatt
William Murray Orlo Hill
Vernon Thompson Jackson
Homer Ernest James
William Lewis Jeter
Thomas Edward Jewell
Francis Paul Kingston
Victor Joseph Koreyva
Robert Lawrence Lester
Raymond August Levesque
James Edward Lewellyn
Henry Shippen Lord, Jr.
Joseph Benjamin Lucas, Jr.
Marvin Russell Macy
Arthur Ray Massey
Ray McDaniel
Robert Andrew McLean
Wallace Montague, Jr.
Charles Roy Muir
Harold Brengle Ogilvie
Cleveland Marion Ouzts, Jr.
Bruce Frank Pavlin
Henry Pisarski
John George Rakyta
James Albert Ranger
Chester Leo Runkowski
Lewis Robert Ryall
Coy Kennith Sallee
Daniel Ryan Seidell
Paul Peter Smorol
Elwood Rudolph Spierer
Chester Andrew Springsteen
Francis Tyler St. John
Richard Gans Stern, Jr.
Henry Alton Taylor
Irby Hinson Thurman
William Joseph Tobin
Paul Bertram Trask
John Harold Ullstrom
Alonzo George Ward
Eldon Leroy Wilson
Henry Carl Arthur Winquist


Idaho Naval History Brief Summaries

Idaho has a rich Navy military history. Click the link to go directly to the article.

U.S. Navy Acoustic Research Detachment (1949-current) Bayview, Idaho
Once touted as "the U.S. Submarine force's most important body of water" by Admiral Edmund Giambastiani, former US Submarine Forces Commander.

Farragut Naval Training Station and Hospital (1942-1946) Athol, Idaho
The largest city in Idaho in 1942 and the second largest of seven navy bootcamps in WWII

U.S. Naval Proving Ground (1942- 1949) currently known as INL, Arco, Idaho
What eventually became the Idaho National Lab, this was originally a Navy artillery range and the home of the first Nuclear Prototype Submarine reactor and the home of Naval Prototype Training Unit where 40,000 sailors trained on nuclear power plant operations from 1949 to 1995

Naval Prototype Training Unit – (1949 – 1995) Idaho Falls, Idaho
Submarine nuclear power capabilities began right here in Idaho at what was then the Navy Arco Proving ground and what is now the Idaho National Laboratory. All of the nuclear personnel from the first nuclear submarine, USS Natilus trained in Idaho.

Naval Operational Support Center ( - current) Gowen Field, Boise, Idaho
Originally located along the Boise River in what is now the Boise Discovery Center, NOSC Boise began in 1963 and moved to its current location on Gowen Field in 1988.

Naval ROTC Unit University of Idaho
Shortly before WWII ended, the Navy established an ROTC unit at the University of Idaho.

U.S. Navy Radio School (1942-1945) University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho
The Navy training station at Farragut wasn’t the only place in Idaho that taught radiomen their skills. The University of Idaho also had a Navy radioman school.

U.S. Navy Convalescent Hospital (1943-1946) Sun Valley, Ketchum, Idaho
Today’s Sun Valley Resort was called the Challenger Inn in 1943. Owned by Union Pacific, it served as a Navy Convalescent Hospital during WWII.

Pocatello Naval Ordnance Plant (1942-1961) Pocatello, Idaho
When the Navy ships fighting in WWII needed their battleship guns repaired, many of those guns came to Idaho for and then were tested at the Navy artilery range or Arco Proving Ground.

Navy Reserve Facility Pocatello (1959-2005) Pocatello Idaho
Along with Boise, the Navy also had a reserve facililty in Pocatello that was known for some of the highest numbers in the nation for Direct Commissioned Officers.

U.S. Navy V-12 School (1943-1945) Pocatello, Idaho
The V-12 Program provided young men who grew up with little hope of ever going to college a chance to do just that. When the V-12 Program ended in 1946, it had produced more than 60,000 Navy and Marine Corps officers. One of those schools was in Pocatello, Idaho.

1955 All-Idaho Navy Company
In January 1955, eighty Idaho men became part of an all-Idaho navy unit. The unit received a special plaque from the Training Command "for exceptional and competitive performance".

Idaho has a a rich military history and a great deal of Navy history. The Naval History and Heritage Command is in agreement as they published this image on their webpage. Click here to read the accompanying article: NHHC article (of note, there are more than 9 ships with Idaho ties, they are listed on the US Navy Ships Named for Idaho Cities, Counties, and Icons page)

U.S. Navy Acoustic Research Detachment (1949-current) Bayview, Idaho

In 1949, when the land that encompassed the former Farragut Naval Training Station and Farragut State College and Technical Institute was no longer needed, part of it, 96 acres, was purchased by the state of Idaho for Idaho Fish and Game to be used as a wildlife research unit. Today much of this is Farragut State Park.

According to the November 23, 1949 edition of The Post-Register, the Navy retained 155 acres near the area where the station’s hospital was located. Referred to as the Taylor basin area, it was between the state-owned land and the private residential area and the Bayview sector. This became the David Taylor Model Basin Field station. The first mention of this name was in the May 20, 1949 newspaper, The Spokesman-Review. The article announced restricted areas the Navy was implementing in Squaw and Idlewild bays. Floats and buoys were placed to mark “underwater cable ranges containing both underwater and surface obstructions”.

In 1957, a 23-page booklet was published about the David Taylor Model Basin Field station. It includes several photos and can be found on google books at 1957 Book

Today, the facility is known as the United States Navy Acoustic Research Detachment or as their webpage https://www.navsea.navy.mil/Home/Warfare-Centers/NSWC-Carderock/Who-We-Are/Bayview-Idaho/ lists it, The NSWCCD Acoustic Research Detachment (ARD).

It is located on Lake Pend Oreille, which is Idaho’s largest, deepest (1,150 feet), and quietest body of water. This provides an ideal environment for acoustic testing without the problems and costs of open ocean operations.

The ARD operates and supports Large Scale Submarine Models, Test Ranges, and acoustic test facilities utilized in conducting Research, Development, Test & Evaluation (RDT&E) of submarine acoustic stealth technology. In fact, much of the acoustic technology on the upcoming USS Idaho was developed on Lake Pend Oreille at the Navy Research Facility in Bayview Idaho.

Several articles about the facility have been published over the years. This article was published in 2014 and is titled The Navy's Most Vital And Secretive Submarine Base Is In. Idaho. https://foxtrotalpha.jalopnik.com/the-navys-most-vital-and-secretive-submarine-base-is-in-1590794426

This article was published in 1998 and is titled Small Submarines Test Silent, Test Deep in Mysterious Idaho Lake. https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-1998-aug-23-me-15711-story.html

This undated article is titled Idaho’s Submarine Fleet Acoustic Development research Center. https://spokanehistorical.org/items/show/589 The facility has a video on YouTube with an overview of what they do. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bf6d7NT_5ds

Farragut Naval Training Station and Hospital (1942-1946) Athol, Idaho

As the United States entered World War II, the Secretary of the Navy desired to establish a naval training facility away from coastal areas, in his words, “far from coastal bombings” which he believed would occur. The site of Lake Pend Oreille, in scenic northern Idaho, was selected and the announcement was made on March 28, 1942. Urban legend has it that it was Eleanor Roosevelt who selected the site but this is not true, it was a delegation of three senior naval officers.

The Station encompassed 4,050 acres at the southern tip of Lake Pend Oreille. The lake itself was described in 1945 by the Station’s Commander Kelley as “ranges up to 2270 feet in depth, is nearly 50 miles long, from 2 to 12 miles wide, and has about 500 miles of shoreline.” The lake is so deep that it does not freeze over during winter.

On April 10, 1942, the contract for the project was awarded to the Walter Butler company for construction of the Station and on April 23rd, they broke ground on the project. On May 30, 1942 it was announced that the Station would be named Farragut in honor of Admiral David G. Farragut, a Civil War Naval Hero.

On July 24, 1942, Captain I.C. Sowell became the first commanding officer at Farragut and on the 31st, the first camp, Area “C” as it was called, was completed. Captain Sowell formally commissioned the Station on September 15, 1942. That same day, Area “C” was renamed Camp Bennion in honor of Mervyn S. Bennion, Commanding Officer of the U.S.S. West Virginia who was killed at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 and posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor. Camp Bennion was the first camp to open and begin training recruits. On September 17, the first recruits, 61 total, arrived.

On September 21, President Roosevelt made a secret visit to the Station accompanied by Rear Admiral McIntyre and Idaho’s Governor Chase Clark. By September 30, there were 1,000 recruits or “Boots” in training.

On October 6, 1942, the second camp was commissioned. It was called Camp Ward in honor of Seaman First Class James R. Ward who died on December 7, 1941 aboard the U.S.S. Oklahoma at Pearl Harbor and posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor.

On November 3, 1942, the third camp was commissioned. It was called Camp Waldron in honor of Lieutenant Commander John C. Waldron who was posthumously awarded the Navy Cross for his actions during the battle at Midway in June 1942.

By November 18, 1942, there were 10,000 recruits in training. On December 1, 1942, the fourth camp was commissioned. It was called Camp Hill in honor of Chief Boatswain Edwin J. Hill who was killed in action on December 7, 1941 aboard the U.S.S. Nevada at Pearl Harbor and posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor.

On December 19, 1942, the fifth camp was commissioned. It was called Camp Scott in honor of Rear Admiral Norman Scott for his actions on November 13, 1942 aboard the U.S.S. Atlanta during the battle of the Solomons and posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor. By December 31, 1942, there were 17, 581 recruits in training.

On March 25, 1943, the sixth camp was commissioned. It was called Camp Peterson in honor of Chief Water Tender Oscar V. Peterson for his actions aboard the U.S.S. Neosho during the battle of the Coral Sea and posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor. At the time of the camps naming, Peterson was believed to have been from Richfield, Idaho. He was not but his widow moved there with their two sons shortly after Peterson’s death. Camp Peterson was the service school camp and was not a recruit training camp. There were several service schools at Camp Peterson Cooks, radiomen, quartermasters, gunner’s mates to name a few.

On April 1, 1943, Captain Sowell was detached from the Station and Captain J.G. Atkins assumed temporary command. On June 9, 1943, Captain Frank H. Kelley assumed the duties of Commandant. He would be the Stations commander for the duration.

On June 26, 1944, the seventh and final camp was commissioned. It was called Camp Gilmore in honor of Commander Howard W. Gilmore for is actions aboard the U.S.S. Growler January 10 - February 1943 and posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor. Camp Gilmore was used for additional training and was not a recruit training camp.

Each of the training camps accommodated 5,000 “boots” each. The typical company was 120 recruits with 20 companies forming a regiment. Each camp was laid out in an oval configuration and was virtually self-sufficient. Each camp had between 20 and 22 two-story barracks, a mess hall, administration building, parade ground or drill field, sick bay and dispensary, recreation building and a drill hall with a swimming pool.

The “boots” were busy with training but they were also involved in other activities. There were stage shows put on by the recruits, camp choirs, baseball teams, football teams, even bands that the “boots” participated in.

When the “boots” completed their training a company photograph was taken and the men were promoted shortly thereafter to either Seaman First Class or Fireman First Class depending on their rating.

The Station had its own newspaper, The Farragut News, and its own very busy post office. By April 1943, the post office was handling over 3,000,000 pieces of mail not counting parcel post and magazines. Each camp had a branch post office as did the hospital.

There was also a tailor shop, a cobbler shop, a telephone system, a laundry for the Ships Service aka full-time staff. The laundry used over 2,500 pounds of soap per month, processing over 225,000 pieces of laundry and dry cleaning each week. (The “boots” did their own laundry)

Women were not trained at the Station but WAVES (Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service) came onboard in 1943 and took part in the daily operation of the facility to relieve sailors for overseas duty and other war efforts. The WAVES had their own sports teams and were even allowed to fire at the outdoor range if they qualified.

Many of the Ship Service personnel resided in Farragut Village which included all the basic necessities to include a civilian dispensary, an auditorium, a school for their children and playgrounds.

On November 20, 1944, the Station received notification that “Service training requirements are such that it will be inadvisable to continue input of recruits to subject station after 1 December 1944. Service School inputs will also be discontinued during the month of December. This discontinuance of inputs will lead to a decommissioning of the Training Center in the spring of 1945.”

On December 4, 1944, the last recruit, Randall W. Cline from Kuna, Idaho, entered Farragut. He brought the total number of recruits processed to 293,383. The last recruit company, 6031-1944 graduated on March 10, 1945 and on March 14, 1945 the Recruit Training Command discontinued.

The Hospital. On May 28, 1942, plans were released for $4,500,000 for a naval hospital to be constructed at the location of the new naval training Station. Construction began on April 23, 1942, with an initial projected cost in WWII dollars of $20,000,000 for 20,000 men. It was later raised to $57,000,000 for 30,000 men but there were also other additions and expansions.

The hospital occupied 170 acres. The hospital was designed as a 1,000-bed facility but was soon expanded by the addition of 750 more beds. The hospital was commissioned and placed in operation on January 15, 1943 with Captain, Harry S. Harding in command.

Aerial photo of the hospital taken by the Army Air Corps from Geiger Field, Spokane, WA The hospital received its first patients on January 25th. It was the largest and most modern hospital in the northwest and contained all the modern equipment necessary for the practice of medicine and surgery.

On December 10, 1943, a Prosthetic Dental Laboratory contact was awarded to R.D. Merrill Construction Company. The project cost was projected at $186,673. Over 11,000 surgical procedures were performed while the hospital was active and hospital dentists provided for more than 58,500 individual sittings or visits. The laboratory performed more than 317,500 tests the Pharmacy compounded and dispensed nearly 88,000 prescriptions.

The number of beds the hospital had varies depending on the source but a report by Commodore Kelley dated August 14, 1945, stated that the hospital originally had 1,477 beds but was expanded in 1944 to an overload capacity of approximately 3,800 beds.

Patients with only minor ills or injuries were treated in the sick bays and dispensaries in the training camps. There were 12 identical dispensaries to serve the original six camps and one Station personnel dispensary. There was also a dispensary in the outgoing unit and one at Camp Gilmore. The more serious and long convalescent cases were transferred to the main hospital.

In conjunction with the hospital, a school for training hospital corpsmen was established however it was operated under a separate command from the main training Station. It was reported that at Farragut there were more medical and dental officers on duty than there were in the entire US Navy prior to Pearl Harbor. The Hospital Corpsman School, commissioned at the same time as the hospital, provided Basic A school training for more than 17,000 hospital corpsmen.

The hospital had its own commissary, post office, fire department, switchboard, library, Chaplain department, Red Cross office, maintenance department, dental department, pharmacy, to name a few of its services.

The hospital, initially built to care for recruits, changed missions in 1944 when thousands of sailors and marines injured and wounded in the Pacific Theater, arrived in waves for treatment and rehabilitation. In April 1945, Camp Bennion, one of the Station’s training camps took on a new mission. It was transferred to the hospital, became the overflow area for the hospital and began treating the large number of men wounded in the Pacific Theater, some of them neuro-psychiatric patients. In addition, an additional 1,600 beds became available.

The actual hospital census on September 1, 1945, was 3,542. This is also believed to be its peak census. The hospital cared for military dependents as well. The Farragut News, the training stations newspaper, reported that as of November 15, 1944, there had been 389 babies born at the hospital. From January 15, 1943 to November 7, 1945, a total of 43,498 patients had been admitted to the hospital.

On June 19, 1945, members of the hospital staff oversaw the commissioning of the Hayden Lake Convalescent home. The home was, according to multiple newspaper articles, donated to the navy by the then current owner of the property Mr. & Mrs. C. P. Lund. The Elks Lodge was also involved. The facility was described as an estate of 785 acres and the residence had “30 rooms including a ballroom, nine fireplaces and seven bathrooms.” An article in the Spokane Chronicle noted that “30 convalescent patients from Farragut Naval hospital will get a day of free golf each Tuesday at Hayden Lake, Idaho.” It was good physical therapy. According to a photo of the facility in the Bedside Examiner, the hospitals newspaper, patients were “chosen to spend from a week to 10 days at the rest home.”

The Hayden Lake facility was short lived however as the Spokesman Review announced on September 26, 1945 that “the United States naval hospital at Farragut will discontinue sending convalescents to the now-named Hayden Lake Estates after October 15.” Today the Clark House On Hayden Lake as it is called, named for its original owner, serves as a bed and breakfast.

The hospital had two commanders. Captain Harry S. Harding September 24, 1943 - April 23, 1945 and Captain A.C. Smith April 23, 1945 – June 15, 1946.

The last corpsman class graduated on October 25, 1945 and the corpsman school was decommissioned October 31, 1945. The hospital itself was decommissioned June 15, 1946.

New Missions. With “boot” and service school training ended, the Station took on new missions. From August 29 through September 22, 1945 it served as a Separation Center where personnel were sent for discharge. The Center separated 609 individuals.

The Brig (Station prison) also took on an added roll when on March 23, 1945, it received the first 40 General Court Martial (GCM) prisoners. Another 40 arrived on the 30th. Still more GCM prisoners arrived and on September 1, 1945 the U.S. Naval Disciplinary Barracks was commissioned.

On February 9, 1945, 240 German prisoners of war arrived at the Station and were interred at the Butler Overflow area, the area where Butler Construction had their administrative offices during construction. These were Germans captured by US troops in Europe and Africa and as there were no neutral countries in Europe in which to confine them, they were brought to the United States. The POW’s performed a variety of jobs to include groundskeepers, bakers, storekeepers, cooks, laborers and even forest firefighters. The official number of POW’s at the Station is 850 but one report/roster places the number at 926. The POW camp was inactivated on April 25, 1946.

In June 1945, a Personnel Effects Distribution Center was established in Camp Hill. Staffed by roughly 70 personnel, their mission was to receive from overseas the effects of men killed in the war, inventory them for objectionable or censorable matter and government issued equipment, launder the clothing, polish the buttons and jewelry, and put the items in storage until the next of kin’s wishes were received regarding disposition.

On June 15, 1946, in a gray mist and drizzling rain, the Farragut Naval Training Station was decommissioned. Perhaps the feelings of those present were best expressed by Commander Kelley, “It is a gloomy day to wind up a gloomy business.”

Epilogue. Although the Station was only operational between 1942 and 1946, during that time, it was the largest city in Idaho, the largest business in Idaho, and the second largest US Naval Training Station. It trained sailors from at least 23 different states and by June 15, 1946, the day its doors closed, a total of 293,383 recruits or ‘boots’, over 25,943 service school sailors and over 17,000 hospital corpsmen had passed through its doors.

The Station was required to provide monthly reports of the visitors and activities the senior Station personnel were involved in. These reports, sometimes referred to as War Diaries, noted the arrival of wounded from the Pacific Theater, German POWs, naval prisoners being sent to the Brig and various celebrities and VIP’s. The celebrities included actress Rita Hayworth on July 31, 1945, band leader Jan Garber and his orchestra on November 9, 1945, and musician and band leader Eddie Miller on December 3, 1945. Although there is no evidence that he visited or performed at the Station, the August 3, 1945 Bedside Examiner, noted that Bing Crosby sent a “new type crutch” to the hospital for the patients.

The former training station became Farragut College and Technical Institute in 1946 whose focus was on the returning veterans. Commander Kelley was its board of directors’ president. The College was short lived however as veterans transitioned back to the civilian world. The college closed the summer of 1949 due to lack of funds and low enrollment despite a golf fundraiser which included comedian Bob Hope in May 1949.

Other organizations were interested in the facilities. The Idaho Falls Post-Register announced on September 30, 1949 that Idaho’s Congressional delegation was pursuing the General Service Administration to “grant all former Farragut land” which included the former college to the Idaho Fish and Game Department. The December 28, 1949 Twin Falls Times-News reported that the Air Force was looking at turning the former training station into a USAF academy. There was even a proposal to convert the former Brig to a “youth reformatory” for juvenile boys too young for the state prison in Boise.

On December 4, 1949, the Idaho State Journal announced that bids had been let for the dismantling of the Station. The Good Hope Wrecking company was the successful bidder on 18 of the 28 items on the November sale. Many of the buildings were either torn down or relocated to surrounding communities. Ultimately, Idaho’s Fish and Game was the victor on the land issue. The announcement was made in The Post-Register on November 23, 1949 that all but 155 acres would be turned over to the fish and wild life service of Idaho. From 1952 until 1965, the former home of Commander Kelley was the headquarters for the Idaho’s Fish and Game Headquarters at the Farragut Wildlife Management Area. In 1965, the former training station became Farragut State Park.

Visitors can drive on the original roads and view two of the remaining landmarks, the water towers, which are still in use today. The original Brig is now a museum open to visitors during the summer season, normally Memorial Day weekend to Labor Day.

At least three of those who trained at the Station earned a place in history.

Robert E. Bush graduated with Camp Hill’s Company 28-44, Regiment 4, Battalion 15, on February 15, 1944. He then continued his training at Farragut, graduating from the Hospital Corpsman School on or about April 28, 1944. He went on to become a Navy medical corpsman and during the Battle of Okinawa and at the age of 18, became the youngest sailor to receive the Medal of Honor during World War II.

Fredrick F. Lester graduated on December 21, 1943, with Camp Ward’s Company 954-43, Regiment 2, Battalion 7. He served as a Navy medical corpsman during the Battle of Okinawa where he earned the Medal of Honor on June 8, 1945. Regrettably, it was a posthumous award.

John H. Bradley trained at Farragut although his graduation date is unknown. On February 21, 1945, while serving as a hospital corpsman with a Marine Rifle platoon, he earned the Navy Cross for heroism. He was also one of the flag raisers at Iwo Jima and is in the photograph of the first flag raising. His story was made into a book as well as a motion picture Flags Of Our Fathers.

At least one member of the Ships Service earned a place in history. Don W. Samuelson, employed as a weapons instructor and gunsmith went on to become a state senator and then Governor of Idaho serving from January 2, 1967 to January 4, 1971.

Other notable Farragut veterans include William W. Laxson who went on to become the state surgeon for the Idaho Army National Guard and Leo F. Buscaglia who went on to become a successful writer and motivational speaker often referred to as “Dr. Love.”

Many of the Farragut veterans have and had fond memories of their time and friendships at the former Station. From 1986 until 2015 they held an annual reunion there.

To learn more about the former training station, see the book Images of America, Farragut Naval Training Station by Gayle Alvarez and Dennis Woolford. It also includes many vintage photographs.

Idaho’s Public Broadcasting Station KSPS published a documentary on Farragut in 2010. Click here to watch it. It runs about 56 minutes.

U.S. Naval Proving Ground (1942- 1949) currently known as INL, Arco, Idaho

Late in the fall of 1942, construction was started on the naval proving ground which would be used for proof firing of the guns reconditioned at Pocatello’s Naval Ordnance Plant. The site selected was at Arco, 60 miles northwest of Pocatello, on a tract of 173,131 acres of comparatively level terrain. In addition to the gun emplacements and gun storage area, 27 permanent buildings were constructed which included quarters for operating personnel, an administration building, warehouses, maintenance shops, and magazines for the storage of powder required for proof purposes.

Work at Arco was substantially complete by the late summer of 1943, and the station was commissioned August 2nd.

The following information is from the Library of Congress website. It has 13 sections and beneath each section is a link to a blueprint on the Library of Congress webpage which shows some of the details described in the section.

The Arco Naval Proving Ground (NPG) was one of five specialized ordnance facilities established in the nation during World War II that conducted research and experiments. Victory in the Pacific theater relied partly on the performance of battleship guns and the Arco NPG was the only proving ground where the Big Guns used by the Pacific Fleet were tested. The Arco NPG was the terminus of an elaborate logistical system that began with the guns on ships like USS Missouri and USS Wisconsin. After repeated combat firing wore out the rifling, the guns were shipped to the coast, sent by rail overland to Pocatello, relined, sent to the proving ground, test-fired, and scored for accuracy. The guns then returned to action the way they had come and entered battle once more.

In addition to naval ordnance testing, the U.S. Navy allowed the Army to use lands adjacent to the Arco NPG for high altitude aerial bombing ranges. Over 40,000 pilots were trained at the Pocatello Army Air Base and many flew day and night training missions over Twin Buttes Bombing Range and Arco High Altitude Bombing Range. Hundreds of men lost their lives while doing so, including seven men whose B-24 Liberator went down near Twin Buttes Bombing Range while on a night mission. Later, the two military branches joined forces to conduct tests that contributed greatly to determining safe storage and transport of conventional ordnance.

The Arco NPG provided the core setting for the present-day Idaho National Laboratory. Infrastructure such as roads and rail sidings influenced the location of later facilities. Beyond the proofing and residential centers, the NPG had altered the desert landscape. Explosives tests and gun firings required their own infrastructure such as concrete and wood targets and camera and instrument shelters. The tests and firings produced impact craters and left a variety of ruins on the desert floor - piles of shattered concrete and twisted metal, wood pieces and window glass shards, bomb shells and even unexploded projectiles. The latter, a hazardous legacy that remained unattended until many decades later.

Aside from being a tribute to the logistical excellence of the U.S. military, the NPG's association with the great battleships of the war and with World War II and postwar military research and testing are nationally significant. The NPG was the only proving ground of its kind west of the Mississippi River and is one of very few sites in Idaho that contributed to American victory during World War II, in addition to revising national standards for the safe storage and transport of conventional ordnance.

Based on evaluations conducted in 1993 and 1997, historians determined that the then-remaining Arco NPG structures, currently within the boundary of Idaho National Laboratory, were significant to the nation's history through their association with World War II. Through ensuing discussions with the Idaho State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO), it was further determined that the infrastructure and associated landscape were also significant. In early 2013, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) notified the Idaho SHPO, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP), and DOE-Headquarters Federal Preservation Officer, of their intent to demolish the vacant World War II buildings. Through the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) Section 106 consultation process, measures to mitigate the adverse impacts of demolition were determined and agreed to through a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between DOE-ID, the Idaho SHPO, and ACHP. The completion of a Historic American Landscape Survey (HALS) was undertaken as part of this mitigation process by the staff of the Cultural Resource Management Office at Idaho National Laboratory. Link to first image: First image

The Army Air Corps used the High-Altitude Bombing Range at Arco, and a second bombing range at Twin Buttes, between 1943 and 1945. Each bombing range had a circular target scraped in the desert surface and lime defining the target rings. At the bombing ranges pyramid targets and lighting were constructed, as well as observation towers. B-17 and B-24 bombers, flying out of Pocatello Army Air Force Base, dropped sand-filled practice bombs during both day and night training flights.

In addition to the bombing ranges, a landing strip and camp, comprised of approximately 20 structures, were located to the south of the Arco NPG range at Midway, along U.S. Highway 20.

The Arco NPG was completed in August 1943 and formally opened on November 11th 1943 as an outlying facility of the Pocatello Naval Ordnance Plant (NOP). The Arco NPG served as an ordnance testing facility during and after World War II, as well as a home to both military and civilian workers. Between 1943 and 1947, guns from the Pacific Fleet that had been relined at the Pocatello NOP were test fired at the Arco NPG before being shipped back for battle use.

Through public land withdrawal and purchase the U.S. Navy had created a facility spanning 271 square miles of desert on the eastern Snake River Plain in Idaho, approximately 65 miles northwest of Pocatello. The flat area of sand and gravel between the mountain ranges to the northwest and exposed lava to the southeast provided ideal conditions for the proofing ground.

The proofing range at the Arco NPG was nine miles wide at its terminus and 30 miles in length, trending in a northeasterly direction. The three access roads, West Monument Line Road, Center Monument Line Road, and East Monument Line Road, extended along the length of the Arco NPG and defined the firing range. The Monument Line Roads were named for the concrete monuments along the West and East Monument Line Roads used to calculate the range of the proofed ordnance. A total of 38 range monuments lined the West and East Monument Line Roads, 19 on each road, at intervals of one mile for the first six miles and two mile intervals for the remaining length of each road. Three observation towers were located along Center Monument Line Road.

At the southeastern end of the range the Arco NPG was divided into two areas a proofing area, where the guns were test fired, and a residential area, where the military and civilian personnel were housed.

During 1943 the U.S. Navy also granted the Army permission to conduct training for high altitude bombing crews on the lands adjacent to the Arco NPG. The Arco High Altitude Bombing Range was located to the west of the Arco NPG and the Twin Buttes Bombing Range to the east, with an additional area, Midway (1), to the south. Link to second image: Second image

The Arco NPG was accessible at the southern end by U.S. Highway 20, which provided road links to Midway and Blackfoot to the southeast and Arco to the west. One section of the highway running through the NPG was rerouted to accommodate the construction of the proofing and residential areas but the original road remained intact and provided a connection to West and East Monument Roads.

Each range monument was marked with a United States Navy (USN) number, beginning with USN 1 at the southern end of East Monument Line Road and concluding with USN 38 at the far north end of West Monument Line Road. Access by rail for the transport of the guns from the Pocatello NOP was via the Union Pacific Railroad line to Arco. The construction of a spur at the Scoville siding allowed the transportation of Naval shipments to the proofing area and was named for the Naval commander who developed the site.

The residential area at the Arco NPG was located half a mile to the southwest of the proofing area and accessed by Main Street, which ran between the original and relocated section of U.S. Highway 20. Irrigation was channeled from the Big Lost River utilizing some of the existing channels from historic construction efforts prior to the arrival of the U.S. Navy. In addition, a concrete basin of unknown use, located west of the proofing area, was constructed and marked 1943. Link to third image: Third image

In 1943 the proofing area at the Arco NPG provided for 10 gun emplacements of various types. The railroad spur from Scoville junction brought guns directly to the emplacements where they were transferred from the railroad using a 250-ton gantry crane at the southeast end of the emplacements. A transfer track could then move guns to the appropriate emplacement for testing.

The gun emplacements were separated from the rest of the proofing area by an 8 foot thick, 315 foot long reinforced concrete concussion wall. The exception being an underground shelter for personnel located between the concussion wall and the gun emplacements. Adjoining the concussion wall were bombproof, office, shop and oil storage buildings. Located above the office, and on top of the concussion wall, was a reinforced control tower and walkway. Additional proofing area structures included restrooms, projectile storage and infrastructure support, including a substation, heating plant and one of two well pump houses at the Arco NPG. Three earth covered bunkers, power bag, fuse and primer, and a standard magazine, provided storage for testing supplies. All of the proofing activities were contained within a fenced area and past the gun emplacements were concrete patrol light structures, illuminating the fence line and beyond. Link to fourth image: Fourth image

The residential area of the Arco NPG housed the civilian workers, their families, and military personnel. Civilians were housed in one of five wooden homes on Kansas Street in the residential area, referred to as battery attendants quarters. A garage for the battery attendant's quarters, also of wooden construction, was located on Memphis Street and provided parking for each of the five attendant quarters.

An additional masonry house was designated for the caretaker of the facility on Louisiana Street. The military personnel at the facility included Marines assigned to guard the Arco NPG, who were housed in a masonry barracks building adjacent to the battery attendant's garage.

The commanding officer, who was provided with a masonry home and an adjacent single car, masonry garage, was housed on the same street as the battery attendant's quarters. The second of two well pump houses was located on Main Street in the residential area, along side a pump house for an underground reservoir.

An elevated water tower was also constructed next to the caretaker's quarters. The locomotive shed, garage and fire station were all located in a single building at the southern end of the residential area. Finally, a flag pole located in front of the marine barracks completed the residential area at the time of opening in 1943. Link to Fifth image: Fifth image

In the years immediately following the construction of the Arco NPG, expansion of the facilities in both the proofing and residential areas continued. From 1943 onwards the residential area saw the addition of civilian housing, as well as buildings to support operations at the Arco NPG. The construction of two battery attendant's double houses opposite the original civilian houses was followed by a new civilian development after the war when two apartment buildings and 17 houses were built in a loop southeast of Main Street. The permanent residence of personnel at the remote location required the addition of a garbage dump, which was located to the west of the residential area in an abandoned section of historic irrigation channel, between the old and new sections of U.S. Highway 20. The increased civilian population also saw the addition of another irrigation channel to accommodate the gardens of the more recent permanent residents.

Beginning in 1944 the proofing range beyond the immediate Scoville area took on an additional role as an explosive safety testing site. The large amount of munitions produced during World War II necessitated a review of the existing safe storage guidelines to accommodate increased capacity and proximity to inhabited buildings. Numerous controlled detonations took place at the Arco NPG to establish new safe storage parameters under a variety of experimental conditions. Link to Sixth image: Sixth image

The storage capacity of the proofing area increased significantly between 1943 and 1946. The addition of new track to the Scoville railroad spur to create gun and armor storage at the western edge of the gun emplacements was accompanied by the extension of the transfer track for moving guns to and from the emplacements. The expansion of the rail access at the proofing area extended to another two standard magazines and also included the addition of track to the metallurgical storage south of the proofing area. To accommodate not only increased proofing activities but also the repair of other Naval property at the site, additional storage for guns, armor, buoys, and miscellaneous equipment was located on unimproved and gravel areas adjacent to the proofing area.

Several buildings constructed included a riggers shop, a storage service building and a diesel generator building. The existing restroom at the proofing area was also extended to provide separate men's and women's facilities. As a result of the increased infrastructure and storage capacity the fenced area was extended and gravel patrol roads formed a perimeter around the exterior and, in part, interior of the proofing area. Link to Seventh image: Seventh image

The expansion of the civilian accommodation at the Arco NPG not only reflected the increase in war time workers at the facility but also the distance some were travelling to and from Arco, a 22 mile journey, often dangerous in winter conditions. The construction included two battery attendant double quarters in the original residential area, consisting of two buildings, each accommodating two families, and a four car garage between the two buildings. After the war, a total of 17 civilian houses were constructed in a new loop southeast of the residential area and another two apartment buildings, accommodating four apartments in each, were built on the exterior of the loop. All of the new civilian homes were wooden construction. The center of the loop was a grass area behind the houses with a garden for the residents, complete with an irrigation channel.

Additional support buildings constructed included two warehouse buildings along Main Street and the extension of the original fire station and locomotive shed to include a maintenance shop and equipment storage. The dog kennels housing the Marine patrol dogs were located on Main Street behind the Marine barracks building, as was the Commissary, or "Store", for the residents at Arco NPG. Link to Eighth image: Eighth image

The testing of ordnance at the Arco NPG began in 1944 as the site offered an isolated, government owned facility with personnel and construction supplies on hand to conduct a large number of different experimental detonations. One of the earliest tests conducted was the "Three Wall Test", which represented cooling bays at munitions loading plants. The detonation of 20,000 pounds of ordnance in each bay completely destroyed the test structure and demonstrated the storage practice was unsafe.

The mass detonation area, located on the proofing range at the Arco NPG, is named for the large scale experimental testing of Army and Navy standard magazines, or igloos, beginning in 1945. Between August 29th and October 31st of that year a total of seven tests were conducted to assess the impact of detonation in one igloo on the integrity of surrounding igloos and revetments (earth barricaded open storage), which were also loaded with ordnance. A wooden barracks building was constructed to assess damage at existing distance recommendations for inhabited buildings. A total of seven agencies took part in recording the experiments from instrument stations across the area while cameras captured the detonations from concrete bunkers. These tests demonstrated distances between igloos could be safely reduced but the inhabited building distance tested could not guarantee the safety of the people inside.

[An interesting side note, when the testing was scheduled in August 1945, it was announced by Capt. Walter Brown, the commander of the Pocatello naval ordnance plant. The announcement was made to the western states for people to listen for sound of the test which would be on 29 August 1945 between 9:30 and 10:30 a.m. The test was being conducted to “determine safest methods and suitable accommodations of storing large supplies of power scheduled to return to United States from overseas.” If anybody heard the explosion, they were to send a post card to the Chief, United States Weather Bureau in Washington, DC spelling out their name, where the sound was heard, description of the intensity and the exact time the sound was heard.

A follow up article on the front page of the Twin Falls, The Times-News stated that the explosion was heard as far west as Boise and as far south as Salt Lake City, Utah but no further. In Idaho Falls, windows rattled but in Blackfoot there were no reports of feeling nor hearing the explosion. The explosion itself sent a mile-wide cloud of purplish gray dust spiraling six thousand feet into the air.] Link to Ninth image: Ninth image

On the proofing range north of the mass detonation area, an experimental detonation to test "missile distance and hazard" of railroad box cars in a classification yard was undertaken. Five box cars were positioned on a short track, constructed for the test, and each one loaded with 30,000 pounds of explosive. The tests determined that positioning of ammunitions trains at a proximity of less than one-half mile, or parallel to each other, in a classification yard was unsafe.

Following the "Three Wall Test" in 1945 the experimental investigation of barrier wall structures continued and a number of tests were conducted in an area south of mass detonation. Six barrier walls were constructed to test the effectiveness for screening against sympathetic detonations and constant tests for standard dividing walls at storage facilities. The investigation into propagation of detonation between storage igloos continued in July and August 1946 near the barrier wall test site, but at a reduced scale. One-tenth linear scale model igloos and revetments were constructed, along with three glass test panels to examine recommended safe distances for inhabited buildings. While the scale model tests were able to provide comparative data to full scale tests, some results were determined to be inaccurate representations of the full scale igloo tests. Link to Tenth image: Tenth image

Full-scale igloo detonation testing resumed in 1946 with the aim of testing a capacity double that of the tests conducted in 1945 at the new, reduced distances established in the earlier tests. The 1945 tests had also demonstrated the standard distance for inhabited buildings to be ineffective so the tests in 1946 included the construction of three additional barracks buildings at increasing distances from the test igloos. An Army radar station was set up in a large crater southwest of the test area and observers were stationed on top of a low butte on the far side of West Monument Road. An additional camera station and associated personnel bunker were constructed north of the igloos, as well as lnyokern instrument shelters made from railroad ties, which were named for the Bikini-type foil gauges provided by the Naval Ordnance Test Station, lnyokern.

Five tests were conducted at the igloo test site in October 1946. The increase in explosives from 250,000 to 500,000 pounds during the tests established an extremely low risk of propagation from detonation at the reduced distance between igloos of 185 feet. The barracks damage was consistent with the 1945 tests and, although severe, damage decreased significantly with distance from the test site. As such the recommended minimum distance for inhabited buildings was not reduced. Link to Eleventh image: Eleventh image

In 1949 the Arco NPG landscape became a nuclear energy research site when the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) acquired the facility and adjoining land to establish the National Reactor Testing Station (NRTS). Today, what remains of the Arco NPG landscape resides within the 890 square miles of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) under the jurisdiction of the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID). The infrastructure of the Arco NPG influenced the development of what is now the INL site in the subsequent years. The residential and proofing areas are now part of the Central Facilities Area (CFA) and sections of both West and Center Monument Line Roads are integrated into Lincoln Boulevard, which serves as a connector between State Highway 33 at the north of the site and U.S Highway 20/26 at the south. The remainder of the proofing range roads are partially accessible on West and Center Monument Line Roads and the entire length of East Monument Line Road, now referred to as T-17, is extant. Of the 38 original range monuments on West and East Monument Roads, 27 have been recorded on the present landscape.

Other INL facilities and isolated remnants of Arco NPG testing are located on a secure site that is inaccessible to the general public. One exception is the Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR I) due to designation as a National Historic Landmark the facility has been converted into an interpretive center for the public.

Explosives Testing Sites The remnants of the explosives safety testing that took place at the Arco NPG can mostly be seen in the form of craters, only some of which can be associated with specific tests. Isolated structures remain at the mass detonation area including concrete camera and firing stations, wooden instrument shelters and foundation posts for the barracks test buildings (Barracks 2, 3, and E). Six of the barrier walls remain standing at the original test site, surrounded by craters.

Naval Ordnance Test Facility (NOTF) Proofing activities on the desert near Arco briefly resumed between 1968 and 1970 during the Vietnam War. However, the development of the NRTS on the Arco NPG range resulted in the creation of the NOTF, which was located south of the original proofing area. At this time, guns were instead fired toward Big Southern Butte, southwest of the new gun emplacement. Link to Twelfth image: Twelfth image

The Central Facilities Area at Idaho National Laboratory developed around the infrastructure of the Arco NPG proofing and residential areas. Immediately following the acquisition of the proving ground by the Atomic Energy Commission, buildings were repurposed to accommodate the needs of the NRTS. One battery attendants double house became the dispensary and other homes were turned into offices or laboratories. Over the years the buildings that could not be repurposed have been removed from the site, most prior to the mid-2000s. Of those that remain the two pump houses, one in the former proofing area (CFA-651) and one in the former residential area (CFA-642), and the explosive magazines (CFA- 637 and CFA-638) are in use today. The concussion wall (CFA-633) and adjoining structures have seen multiple additions in recent years and some of the associated proofing area structures are partially extant.

Concrete alleys delineate the gun emplacement area to the northeast of the concussion wall and in the storage area to the west, where a number of timber planking support structures remain in place. Partial rail track from the Arco NPG is extant in the CFA area and the main Scoville spur remains intact and in use, including a later northern extension of the line. The 250-ton gantry crane used to transfer the guns still stands at the eastern end of the concussion wall. A number of the original concrete patrol lights mark the area where the proofing area fence once ran.

The former residential buildings remaining from the Arco NPG, like many of the buildings in the former proofing area, are vacant and include the commanding officers quarters (CFA-607) and garage (CFA-632), the caretaker's quarters (CFA-613), and the Marine barracks (CFA-606). The Marine barracks were extended at some point following the transfer of the Arco NPG. Other structures remaining from the World War II era include the concrete basin west of the proofing area and the garbage dump used by the residents of the Arco NPG. Link to Thirteenth image: Thirteenth image

Naval Prototype Training Unit – (1949 – 1995) Idaho Falls, Idaho

Originally named the National Reactor Testing Station (NRTS), what is now the Idaho National Laboratory or INL, was established by the Atomic Energy Commission in 1949 to serve as a center of atomic innovation in the United States. In its earliest years, the NRTS maintained four main reactor systems, one of these was the Submarine Thermal Reactor (STR or S1W): a nuclear engine prototype designed for U.S. submarine propulsion.

Despite its identity as a non-weapons related facility, the NRTS nonetheless became inextricably linked to military development. It played a crucial role in the designing and testing of nuclear propulsion prototypes in order to make nuclear-powered naval vessels a possibility. Argonne National Laboratory scientists teamed up with Westinghouse Corporation contractors to use the state-of-the-art equipment available at NRTS to devise and develop the proposed nuclear-powered engine at what would be known as the “S1W” reactor in Idaho Falls.

The atomic engine’s dual zero-emission, zero-consumption feature provided a great competitive advantage to alternative forms of nautical propulsion. Five years after the reactor began operation, the U.S. Navy successfully launched the USS Nautilus—the first ever nuclear-powered submarine—for deployment. The Nautilus could go farther and longer than any previous submarine due to its nuclear-powered propulsion engine.

This innovation transformed the Navy’s potential reach throughout the world. Naval students seeking to man these submarines trained in the Nuclear Power Training Unit at Idaho Falls up until 1995. Modern U.S. nuclear submarines and supercarriers owe their global reach in large part to the S1W experiments conducted in Idaho Falls.

The preceding is courtesy of the Atomic Heritage Foundation

This Insignia was adopted by the NPTU in 1964. Photo courtesy of the Naval History and Heritage Command.

Naval Operational Support Center ( - current) Gowen Field, Boise, Idaho

The Navy Operational Support Center (NOSC) Boise traces its beginnings back to 1963.

The NOSC Boise moved to Gowen Field from the Discovery Center, Downtown Boise in 1988.

NOSC Boise houses 190 Selected Reserve and Full-Time Staff personnel. Their mission is to generate mobilization (deployment) readiness by providing administrative services, training support, and world class customer service to Reserve personnel in support of surge and operational requirements for the Navy, Marine Corps, and Joint Forces. Additionally, they conduct all Navy Funeral honors services for all of Idaho, a portion of Montana, Utah, and Oregon.

The NOSC Boise has received the following awards:

Navy Region Northwest Reserve Component Command Medium NOSC of the Year 2018

#1 of 16 NOSCs in their region.

2018 Medium NOSC of the Quarter for second and fourth quarters.

Their current commander is Commander, Megan M. Fine

Their current Senior Enlisted Leader is YNC(SCW/AW) Arnae' C. Hayes

A special thank you to YNC Hayes for the preceding information.

Naval ROTC Unit University of Idaho

The Navy ROTC program at the University of Idaho began just as WWII was drawing to a close. The July 27, 1945 Spokane Chronicle, noted that a group of seven naval officers were inspecting the campus with a goal of establishing a Navy ROTC unit. The seven included five officers from Washington, DC and two from the 13th Naval district in Seattle.

The ROTC program was created on November 1, 1945 and began training cadets in 1947. The program was a four-year training course for Naval ROTC students with its first commanding officer being Capt. Stephen H. Ambruster, a WWII veteran and former commander of the submarine Robalo. Ambruster relinquished command in August 1948 when he was transferred to the command of the USS Monongahela. He was replaced by Capt. Church A. Chappell, also a WWII veteran.

While enrolled in the program, the cadets held the rank of Midshipman, nicknamed ‘Middies’. After completing their education, the graduates were commissioned as officers in either the Navy or Marines and spent two years on active duty. Their commissions were equivalent to the graduates of the Naval Academy in Annapolis. The first University of Idaho graduating class commissioned approximately 200 officers in 1951.

A few notable moments in the Unit’s history include:

In 1965 Iranian Navy Midshipmen were admitted into the program.

In 1970 the Unit was damaged by arson purportedly by anti-war activists.

1972 saw the admission of the program’s first female midshipmen.

Some of the notable individuals who attended or taught at the University of Idaho include:

Lieutenant General Ross E Rowell, one of the pioneers of Marine Aviation, completed his education at the University of Idaho in 1908.

Medal of Honor and Purple Heart recipient William McGonagle joined the university as an instructor in Naval Weapons, Operations and Tactics, and Naval Leadership from January 1959 - July 1961. He also served as Commanding Officer and received a Bachelor of Science in Education from the University while teaching there.

Roderick L. Mayer, an F-4 phantom pilot, helped develop the first book for space navigation. CDR Mayer would fly more than 70 combat missions during the Vietnam War and later be shot down. He was promoted posthumously to the rank of CDR.

Navy Captain Jeffery S. Ashby helped develop the F/A-18 aircraft and flew the F-18 in multiple combat missions. At the age of 40, Ashby was selected as an astronaut candidate in December 1994. He went on to pilot space shuttle mission’s STS-93, STS-100, and commanded STS-112.

James F. Amos was named the 35th Commandant of the United States Marine Corps. General Amos would hold both positions of Commandant and assistant Commandant during his career in the military.

Medal of Honor recipient Reginald Rodney Myers graduated from the University of Idaho in June 1941 with a Bachelor of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering. At the time, he was with the Army ROTC program and attained the rank of cadet colonel. He accepted a regular commission in the USMC later that year. A special thank you to Commander Anthony Rabaiotti, MSC, USN, Executive Officer & Associate Professor of Naval Science for much of the preceding information.

This emblem, for Naval ROTC at the University of Idaho, dates back to the 1970s. Image courtesy of Naval History and Heritage Command.


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Hot summer of 1967: The Israeli attack on America and the 'Soviet destroyer.'

Story One: At one show sales were slow and I got tired of people walking past my table and being ignored so I began chanting “great deals on targets free forbidden knowledge about the attack on the USS Liberty,” referring to brief handout fliers on my table describing the attack. Just as I said few know about the attack on the USS Liberty, a fellow who happened to be just walking by my table said, “I do. I was there.”

He said he was aboard a US submarine that was there. Validation of his story to me was the fact that he happened to be wearing a baseball cap with the submariner symbol. I was remiss in taking note whether the cap indicated the submarine he was on.

He said yes, there was US submarine there, the one he was on, and that there was a Russian submarine there, and also a French submarine, which he said went down. that's right. was sunk. He was brief and tight lipped in his descriptions because he said he was talking around classified information. I can understand that if that indeed did occur why the French wouldn't want word of that going out.

Story Two (related to Story One): I talked to one sailor who served aboard an aircraft carrier (don't recall which, would have to dig up information) who told me that the Brits gifted a submarine to Israel and that Israel flew a crew to England to sail it back to Israel. The submarine never made it back to Israel. Pay back for the sinking of the French submarine?

Story Three: According to a sailor on the aircraft carrier USS America (a friend now who shares emails with me), the Israelis had a helicopter hovering over the USS Liberty and were about to ladder down a kill team to finish the job but buggered off when the Russian submarine in the waters surfaced to let the Israelis know there they were witnessing the event.

My friend from the USS America also told me: “You know Rick, we sent out two squadrons of planes from the ship that day, one to rescue the Liberty and one. armed with nukes. to bomb Egypt. The squadron sent to rescue the Liberty was recalled by order of the president, and the squadron flying to bomb Egypt was recalled because the Liberty didn't go down.

Thanks very much for this information. It does support the idea of the Russians witnessing (and thus preventing) the attack and attempted sinking of USS Liberty.

I had to smile when I read your #2

". Story Two (related to Story One): I talked to one sailor who served aboard an aircraft carrier (don't recall which, would have to dig up information) who told me that the Brits gifted a submarine to Israel and that Israel flew a crew to England to sail it back to Israel. The submarine never made it back to Israel. Pay back for the sinking of the French submarine?"

Canadians also bought a couple of British submarines and they were the biggest "lemons" in the history of naval vessels. I don't believe Canada ever used them. although they cost the country million$. I believe the Brits selling them to us was a covert 'act of war'.

From the examples you give. it looks like Americans are well aware of the "hidden history" of the USS Liberty. but the history has been so defiled with disinformation. it may never recover. alas.

No Greencrow, generally Americans don't know about the USS Liberty. Silly me, I was envisioning starting a cult following selling my targets. That hasn't happened. Americans are too dumbed down and stupid to ever get it regarding Israel. My stories came from a few individuals involved with the incident. And my friend from the USS America constantly sends me emails regarding the Islam evil meme. I shoot back that its the jews, jews, jews.

One email he sent entitled “This is coming” was about some Muslim politician being groomed for a presidential run. I shot back an email entitled “This is already here” which linked the website “takebackourrights.org” pointing out our noahide laws that legalize our jew government to execute Christians.

Here's another oddity about the cowardly Israeli attack on the Liberty:

The admiral of the fleet nearest the Liberty that launched the two American fighter jets that were called back by the SOB LBJ was Admiral Morrison, the father of Jim Morrison who would die four years later, supposedly of a heart attack, without an autopsy being performed, meaning they were guessing what caused Jim's untimely death.

Admiral Morrison had advocated launching a retaliatory strike against Israel and blockading their ports, but was overruled by the traitor LBJ.

Do you have a photo of your target? If you send it to me as a jpeg, I'll post it on this blog. As an artist, I would love to see it. Yes, it is amazing how gullible most Americans are about "blame the muslims". That's been a real success up here in Canada too. The muslims need a world class leader to stand up to the propaganda. Muhammed Ali was the only one they had in the US.

Yes, I've said on this blog how Obama was groomed (brain washed) for the presidency from a young age. Thanks once again for your comments re USS Liberty.

Yes, any comprehensive history of USS Liberty that is written once the Russians "fess up" to what actually went down with their Destroyer 626/4 would have to include the James Morrison connection. Perhaps James Morrison the Rock Star knew too much about the USS Liberty and/or what his father was up to in the US Navy as the most powerful Admiral of the day.

But then again, they were killing off rock stars on a regular basis in those days. ending up with the assassination of John Lennon.

Greencrow, you can see the banner that I use and read a bit of my story of selling my targets here: http://ww3zionism.blogspot.com/2015/01/uss-liberty-banner-to-make-inaugural.html

All of my targets have the meme Remember the USS Liberty in the footer area of the target.

In response to that linked post on my blog, I received a donation to my paypal account from none other than the chaplain of the USS Liberty, Ron Kukal. Needlesss to say my feet weren't touching the ground that entire weekend of that show.

What an honoUr to get a donation from the USS Liberty chaplain. and what does that say about your POV that you have his support! Can you send me the link to your ". little handout that describes the attack on the USS Liberty."?

I would like to do a follow up post with your target and the handout. Thanks very much if you're able. If you can't I will also understand.

I don't now whether the Russians witnessed the attack or had anything to do with ending the attack. I believe the attack ended bacause it became clear to the powers behind it that they lost control of the narrative. LBJ and McNamara were forced into the open because the Liberty didn't sink as quickly as planned.

It is entirely plausible that a Russian destroyer offered assistance and remained nearby when no other help was available. Sailors do not always mirror the views and policies of their governments. No sailor with an ounce of decency will see a ship in great distress far from shore and just shrug. The Liberty declined the offer because they didn't know who they could trust and because the Liberty was the most sophisticated spy ship in its day. You can't let the enemy see what you have.

I hope the Russians will have more to say, but silence is a valuable commodity to anyone engaged in diplomatic give and take. Much could be learned if the men on board the subs in the vicinity would finally spit out their gags. James Ennes has more to say about the sub topic at http://www.ussliberty.org/submarine.txt. Well worth a read.

Thank you GC for remembering that June 8 is a date that screams for justice.

Time world knew about this And the fact. fact a Russian Ship stood by stopping the Attackc by Israel

White House Tapes Exist of President Johnson meeting with a mossad agent in an out of the way space in the White House. 7 June, 1967 My research has revealed that President J F Kennedy and his U.S. Atty. General brother, Robert Kennedy had Every Space within the White House bugged due to ever increasing and ever more dangerous threats from a number of israelies. Mossad called the meeting with LBJ. LBJ: You wanted to meet. Why? Mossad: The time has come Mr. President. A time of great.
LBJ: Say it! . The Liberty. It is only one ship. Not well armed at that. We have photos. It will not take long really. There will be no survivors to tell a different sotory. We will see to it. After we sink her, you can go on television and say it was the Egyptions. We need you to bomb Cairo so.
LBJ: What the fuck are you saying you asshole. I'll kick your ass myself right here and now. Bomb Cairo? Fuck you! later, Mossad: You owe us. You owe us everything, Everytying,
the Presidency, the White House, everything - I said Everything! Now, NOW is the time to pay! You Must Pay Now! (Full complicity in the murder of JFK [Mossad, one of three kill teams] Remember, we control your corporate media.
LBJ: Alright. But there can be no survivors. You understand. I'll deyn it all if anyone is left alive to talk. You understand me? [from memory - quite close - there is so much more. go to ABOUT page - 26 to 34 of my routt-county-corruption.com for more. I was run out of the county where I purchased (paid off) acreage in 1983, in 2007, for sharing

Thanks for this comment, anonymous. This Canadian is wishing that Americans will one day get truth and justice regarding the Liberty.

Formerly Anonymous - White House Tape Transcripts, 8 Feb. 2019 - Now, RedDawg
1st: Greencrow - Thank You So Much for your educational efforts on USS Liberty!
In the past one hour and 20 minutes I typed in this box 2/3 and 3/5-plus of the 7 June 1967 White House Tape transcripts - word for word and precisely - only to have them disappear in a flash! Twice! A coincidence? Perhaps. I will try a third time, some other time.
[Correction: From Page 14 (of my 255-plus page) routt-county-corruption. Only the first 90 pages would be most interesting to most Forbidden History seekers.]
Best of luck and health and success in all you do Always - same for all those you care for!
- RedDawg

Sorry for the Blogger glitch. Why don't you type the transcripts into WORD and then e-mail them to me at the e-mail address on the top of my blog? Once I receive them I'll publish them as a separate and updated post on this important historical issue. "the Liberty False Flag atrocity".

RedDawg said.
Formerly Anonymous - White House Tape Transcripts, 8 Feb. 2019 - Now, RedDawg
Greencrow - Again, Thanks From Many - Crewmen Most Of All!
7 June 1967 White House Tape Transcripts: President Lyndon B. Johnson & Mossad Agent - Just as they reached my hands, Long Ago.
Day Prior To U.S. Government-Enabled, Treasonous U.S. President-Enabled, Zionist-Israeli/Khazarian Terrorist False Flag Attacks On USS Liberty
Johnson: "You wanted to meet? Why?" Mossad Agent: "The time has come, Mr. President, a time of great danger - a time upon which the hinge of history will turn - a time of great sacrifice - for everyone, I mean. " Johnson: "Say it!"
Mossad Agent: "Very well. We have destroyed the Egyptian and Syrian Air Forces and we occupy the Sinai. Our armi is poised on the east bank of the Suez Canal! We are still not sure how many weapons and men the Egyptians have in reserve - possibly enough to maul or even repel our forces in a stand-up fight. We cannot be certain. We want your Navy and Air Force to attack the Egyptians so there will be no. " Johnson: :God-dammit, why? We have no argument with those sand niggers!" Mossad Agent: "There is also the matter of your ship off our coast - listening to our communications - the Liberty. " Johnson: "Shit! Listen, motherfucker, everybody in the fckin' world has those ships! We're not gonna stop you! Do what the fuck you think you have to do. I told you, we have no argument with any god-damn rag-heads right now!" Mossad Agent: "If that ship were - attacked, ahhh - we feel that a response should, ahhh - would - be forthcoming from the United States. I mean - that your forces could, let us say - contain - the Egyptians, while we go about the business of - ahhh - expanding our nation's territory. We want the Golan, the Sinai, the West Bank, Jerusalem - mmmm - for - the future and national security of the Jewish people, of course, and . " Johnson: "Them fckin' Egyptians know better than to attack us! We'd destroy them!" Mossad Agent: "We will do the attacking, Mr. President. It is only one ship! A very small ship - and not well armed at that, as you know. We have photos. It would only take a few minutes, we feel - not long really! After we sink her, you can go on television - say it was the Egyptians! Your nNavy and Air Force could hold them at bay if you strike rapidly at their rear and bomb Cairo when we start our advance across the Canal. They have no planes left to fly! It is for Israel! Of course - there will be no survivors to - tell a different story - we will see to that!"

7 June 1967 White House Tape Transcript - Continued (I hoped to avoid the 'disappearance' experienced yesterday.
Johnson: "What the fuck! What are you saying, you cocksucker!? You crazy bastard! I'll kick your ass myself, by God! Right here and now! Bomb Cairo? Fuck You! [Ignoring the 294 USS Liberty crewmen!] Mossad Agent: " You owe us, Mr. President! You owes us - everything! Everything - the White House, the presidency - everything. I said everything! I am here to collect! Now, NOW is the time to pay! Remember, we control your corporate media." [Full Israeli/Khazarian Complicity In The Murder of JFK!] Johnson: "Alright. But as God is my witness, there can be no survivors! You understand? I'll deny it all if anyone is left alive to talk! You understand me? [Presidential High-fucking-Treason!] Mossad Agent: "Of course, Mr. President. Certainly I, that is - we - understand. We will make it brief. There will be no survivors. We will see to it!" Johnson: "Get out! Get the fuck out of here! Now!" (Source: United States White House Tapes/Transcripts.)
Greencrow - readers - what sincerely pisses me off most: My 50 years of research into what I call Forbidden History has revealed that for over 225 years, This 'U.S.' Government as assisted in, has enabled, has covered up (with the Enemy-Owned 'press') the mass murder of primarily this nation's military - murdering as in cannon-fodder - all for the benefit of this globe's power/monitory/Bankster/Khazarian Crime Syndicate elitists! Almost Always As False Flag Operations to bring about whatever goals they Know - from historic chronologic documentation - they Will attain! If we don't educate Americans to a tipping point level, our children, their children, and even their children will still be alive through an ever-increasing Tyranny! My 11th grade "history teacher", in 1968, clearly reviewed the 13 pages I handed him - outside of class, and without a word.
With many of my friends and schoolmates surely headed off to Southeast-Asia to die and be maimed for life in the Crime Syndicate's "Police Action", I began researching in 1967. My 13 pages outlined (what I thought was) perfect evidence that: 1) Our USS Maine was blown up by crime syndicate-run treasonous filth within our government - to initiate the Spanish-American War - and not by any Cuban mine or Spanish torpedo! 266 men blown to bits and drowned (if my memory serves me. )! Hundreds wounded! The goals I found were to claim enable the take over of the financial/banking systems of Guam, the other island groups in the area - claiming them as U.S. Territories - for the benefit of the debt-enslavement efforts of the Bankster-Elites! 2) There was no legitimate (evidence) reason for the Vietnam War!
There Was NO 4 August, 1964 Attack on any U.S. Destroyer!
Without a word, the "teacher" failed me! As I've said, Good Luck To Us All!

Do you want to add anything to your two posts of this morning before I merge them into a new post and bump to the top of the blog? Thanks.

Yes. However - for another time. I cannot at this time. I'm quite seriously getting ready for my new best furry, four-footer female friend - Hanna the Amazing Golden Retriever puppy! Eight days to go!
I have collected research on the USS A_?_-mind fart-_?_ SS-522, USS Requin SS-467, and USS Trutta SS-487 (if memory serves accurately) - all of whom were in the AOR during the USS Liberty Attacks. There were also Italian, French, and a few locals - quite possibly a Russian boat as well down there. Those aboard the A__?__? SS-522 - senior enlisted men - one or more have come forward saying they were so close that they at times thought they were being depth charged. This one Navy man told a Liberty survivor (Phil Tourney, I Think - I send him every one of my educational shirt designs) he and his crewmen Heard Every Round Hit The Liberty!
Please pardon the boat name missing - this is the very first time I couldn't remember it in years! SS-522 is Correct! Again - THANKS For ALL You Do! I'll get back to you after my pup is past the peeing every 30 or 40 minutes - could be Weeks!
I do hope you have had the chance to review Phillip Tourney's Books: Erasing The Liberty and What I Saw That Day - Essential. Phil also contributed to other books with his crewmen
such as Ship Without A Country. His Radio/Web shows Great too: The Liberty Hour, and Your Voice Counts! Heck of a guy! Getting the word out, like you Greencrow! Thank You!

Greencrow!
USS Amberjack SS-522! Pardon the brain/electron/mis-fire.
RedDawg

I have edited your posts as follows:

RedDawg said. White House Tape Transcripts, 8 Feb. 2019 - Now, Greencrow - Again, Thanks From Many - Crewmen Most Of All!
7 June 1967 White House Tape Transcripts: President Lyndon B. Johnson & “Mossad Agent” - Just as they reached my hands, Long Ago. Day Prior To U.S. Government-Enabled, Treasonous U.S. President-Enabled, Zionist-Israeli/Khazarian Terrorist False Flag Attacks On USS Liberty Johnson: “You wanted to meet? Why?” Mossad Agent: “The time has come, Mr. President, a time of great danger - a time upon which the hinge of history will turn - a time of great sacrifice - for everyone, I mean. ” Johnson: “Say it!” Mossad Agent: “Very well. We have destroyed the Egyptian and Syrian Air Forces and we occupy the Sinai. Our army is poised on the east bank of the Suez Canal! We are still not sure how many weapons and men the Egyptians have in reserve - possibly enough to maul or even repel our forces in a stand-up fight. We cannot…” . Johnson: “What the fuck! What are you saying, you cocksucker!? You crazy bastard! I’ll kick your ass myself, by God! Right here and now! Bomb Cairo? Fuck You! [Ignoring the 294 USS Liberty crewmen!] Mossad Agent: “You owe us, Mr. President! You owes us - everything! Everything - the White House, the presidency - everything. I said everything! I am here to collect! Now, NOW is the time to pay! Remember, we control your corporate media.” [Full Israeli/Khazarian Complicity In The Murder of JFK!] Johnson: “But as God is my witness, there can be no survivors! You understand?” I’ll deny it all if anyone is left alive to talk! You understand me? [Presidential High-fucking-Treason!] Mossad Agent: “Of course, Mr. President. Certainly I, that is - we - understand. We will make it brief. There will be no survivors. We will see to it!” Johnson: “Get on”.
Yes. However - for another time. I have collected research on the USS Amberjack SS-522, USS Requin SS-467, and USS Trutta SS-487 (if memory serves accurately) - all of whom were in the AOR during the USS Liberty Attacks. There were also Italian, French, and a few locals - quite possibly a Russian boat as well down there. Those aboard the USS Amberjack SS-522 - senior enlisted men - one or more have come forward saying they were so close that they at times thought they were being depth charged. This one Navy man told a Liberty survivor (Phil Tourney, I Think - I send him every one of my educational shirt designs) he and his crewmen Heard Every Round Hit The Liberty!"

Is this correct? How did you find this transcript of Johnson and the Mossad Agent. Is there a link to a source? Thanks.

Greencrow - Canadian spirit!
Your website - on 8 February @ 3:25 - was the very first time I left any marks on any website!
Once again, for the crewmen of the AGTR-5 USS Liberty, for the families of those lost, for the families of the survivors - all of whom have been through unimaginable decades of merciless neglect, I Thank You for your efforts. Every human Deserves to know their Real, their Hidden, their Forbidden History!
Do you allow my editing?
To your May 10, ཏ @ 10:26 edit: Line 12 of text below initial two lines - LBJ is quoted (as indicated in my May 9 12:22 - as stating, Alright. BEFORE he states But as God is my witness
Thank you for repairing my armi on 3rd line of May 9 @ 11:50 and in the third to last line of same you nNavy Can these be edited?
The Complete Text Should Be As Spoken - Not Edited Down. I'll Completely Rewrite it some time if it would aid your efforts. I'll check back - but cannot imagine how after 18 May!
Doggie Day!
One of the few places I was able to unearth these White House Tape transcripts - in OSINT - Open Source Intelligence, was, The OzBoy Files. Reliable Source. Definately israli/Mossad!

Hi RickB
I am producing a documentary on the Liberty and would like to talk to you about the sailors that talked to you.
Please email me @ [email protected]

RedDawg,
Am a educational research analyst working on USS Liberty.

Looking for a source for the LBJ/Mossad white house meeting
Spent many hours in LBJ's library with no results.
Contacted the OzBoy files but they were unable to provide a source and suggested
ask a librarian, which went no where.


Watch the video: AMBERJACK 002