Chinese Chariot Design

Chinese Chariot Design


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Story of cities #4: Beijing and the earliest planning document in history

The seemingly incoherent sprawl of modern Beijing is based on meticulous plans to bind citizens together under imperial rule. Conceived as a means of enforcing social order, the impact of planning remains strong in the city today

Last modified on Wed 23 Sep 2020 15.29 BST

In the depths of Beijing’s Planning Exhibition Hall, a big grey hangar that squats in the corner of Tiananmen Square, stands a scale model of the city. It is an endless field of tiny wooden and perspex blocks, low-rise courtyards huddled cheek by jowl with a motley jumble of towers, expanding ever outwards in concentric rings.

To attempt to build a model of China’s 22-million strong capital is a Sisyphean endeavour. This carpet of miniature rooftops is hopelessly incapable of keeping up with the city’s relentless pace of change, the exhibition hall too small to ever contain a megalopolis so sprawling that it is currently building its seventh ring road, an orbital loop that will run for almost 1,000km in circumference.

But the model’s bird’s-eye view exposes something that is illegible from the ground: the rigid order that underlies the rambling sprawl. A rhythm of axes, grids and symmetrical walled compounds emerges from the chaos, pointing to the fact that this seemingly incoherent metropolis is in fact the carefully structured product of one of the earliest planning documents in history.

The first thing you notice is the monumental fissure that slices north-south through the city, as if the urban grain had been severed by a great tectonic rupture. It is an axis that runs for more than 20km, shooting out like a laser beam meridian line from the walls of the Forbidden City, the palatial compound that lies at the centre of it all.

The 180-acre imperial palace appears to send ripples through the surrounding urban grain like a rock thrown into a pond, forming the successive layers of ring-roads. Its rhythm of symmetrical walled courtyards seems to structure the layout of the entire city, from the scale of blocks, to streets, to individual homes.

The 180-acre Forbidden City in the heart of Beijing. Photograph: Alamy

The effect is no accident: Beijing was conceived as a diagram of an organised, harmonious society, designed to bind the citizens together in bricks and mortar under the supreme rule of the emperor. It was to be an expression of absolute power like no other city in the world.

Founded more than 3,000 years ago as the city of Ji, Beijing’s present urban form was established in the early Ming dynasty (1368-1644), when the Yongle emperor moved the imperial capital here from Nanjing.

In establishing the fundamental layout of the new capital, the Ming reached for a suitably weighty touchstone, drawing on the teachings of the Kaogong Ji (roughly translated as “regulations of construction”), a text dating from the fifth century BC part of the Rites of Zhou, an ancient Confucian manual of bureaucracy and organisational theory.

“It was a means of legitimising their rule,” says Toby Lincoln, lecturer in Chinese Urban History at the University of Leicester. “By explicitly drawing on this ancient manual of rites, their new capital city used divine numerology and ritual to express the power of the ruling elite in physical space.”

As one of the oldest examples of urban planning guidance in the world, the Kaogong Ji covers everything from how to determine north-south orientation when planning a new city (stick a pole in the ground and watch its shadow), to dictating the specific dimensions for local, regional and national capitals.

It states that the national capital should be “a square with sides of nine li” (a traditional Chinese unit of measurement equivalent to around 500 metres), with “each side having three gateways”. Inscribed within this square, it stipulates that there must be “nine avenues running north-south and nine running east-west, each of the former being nine chariot tracks wide” – a principle that perhaps set the precedent for the scale of modern-day Beijing’s agoraphobia-inducing highways.

A woman looks at the model of Beijing’s city master plan. Photograph: Guang Niu/Getty Images

But the ancient Han Chinese were less concerned with the practicalities of easing chariot traffic flow than with casting the capital as an expression of divine power, organising the city as a direct representation of the cosmos – with the emperor (aka the Son of Heaven) at the very centre of this model universe. Accordingly, the ideal city would take the form of a perfect square (the shape that the earth was deemed to be), with its principal roads dividing it into nine equal sectors, representing the nine provinces of the empire. The three gates on each of the city walls, meanwhile, stood for the three elements of the universe – heaven, earth and man – the total adding up to the 12 months of the year. Residing at the heart of this city-sized cosmogram, the emperor was the very middle of the Middle Kingdom itself: he who held power over the city and state, by extension, held control over all creation.

And what a creation it was. When Marco Polo visited the city in the 13th century, before the Ming had taken control and begun their improvements, he described it as already being “so vast, so rich and so beautiful, that no man on earth could design anything superior to it”. By the time the Yongle emperor had finished building his 10-metre thick walls in the mid-15th century, Beijing was the largest city in the world (a distinction it held until the early 19th century) – a majestic capital of the oldest and richest civilisation on the planet, whose command of science and technology far exceeded that of Europe, which was just emerging from the dark ages.

This conception of the city as an expression of both regal power and social order, guided by cosmological principles and the pursuit of yin-yang equilibrium, was unlike anything in the western tradition. As architect and Chinese scholar Alfred Schinz, author of The Magic Square: Cities in Ancient China, puts it: it is “probably the most elaborate and complex system of thought developed by ‘archaic’ man about the world order and its reflection in a planned settlement structure”.

It was a form of symbolic planning that had a strong impact on the everyday life of the city, too, influencing the profane world beyond the realm of the emperor’s divine rituals. Each of the city gates was assigned a particular function, according to the kind of traffic that was permitted to enter through it. Chaoyangmen, to the east, was used for grain, prompting warehouses to grow up around it. Andingmen, to the north, saw the daily flow of night-soil, with three great pans outside where it was dried and sold to farmers, stimulating agricultural trade immediately outside the city walls. Qianmen, to the south, was positioned on a central trading route, which fostered a lively market culture that continues to this day – although the informal street markets were sadly swept away and replaced with a Disneyfied traditional shopping street for the 2008 Olympics.

The city plan also proved to be a powerful way of structuring and maintaining a sense of order down to the scale of the individual family, the walled compound form extending beyond the gates of the imperial palace and into the home. According to David Bray, author of Social Space and Governance in Urban China, not only did the walled city “embody a complex array of cosmologically determined symbolic spaces, designed to reinforce the might of the emperor and his government, but also, in its simple grid design it provided the template for the ordering of everyday social life.”

Night view of Changan Avenue, the 10-lane thoroughfare which slices east-west through the city. Photograph: Imaginechina/Corbis

Just as the 180-acre imperial palace was structured as a rigid diagram of court hierarchy – its courtyards, halls and suites of 9,000 rooms organised according to the royal food chain – so too were Beijing’s surrounding houses planned as an expression of the Confucian family structure. The traditional courtyard homes, or siheyuan, that line the city’s hutong alleyways were arranged according to the “duties of obligation” between family members.

The northern-most wing was the place of the patriarch and his wife (or wives), the eastern wing was for to the second-ranking male and his family, the western wing was for the third-ranking male, while the southern wing closest to the street was for servants and the menial functions of cooking and storage. As anthropologist Francesca Bray puts it, the traditional courtyard house was “a kind of loom, weaving individual lives into a typically Chinese social pattern” – the city itself a regularised tapestry of obedient subjects laid out before the emperor.

The repetition of the walled compound as a means of enforcing social order was a tool that didn’t go unnoticed centuries later by Chairman Mao. In his drive to erode the nuclear family structure, he began to reconfigure Beijing into a network of semi-autonomous enclaves, each under the control of the danwei – the work unit to which each citizen was assigned and the basic unit by which society was organised and controlled in the Communist era, both ideologically and physically.

The traditional courtyard house was “a kind of loom, weaving individual lives into a typically Chinese social pattern”

Each compound was to be self-sufficient, offering its residents housing, employment, education and healthcare, along with communal canteens and bath houses, creating miniature walled cities within the city. Intended to foster a sense of belonging and being part of a collective endeavour, it instead turned Beijing into a place of introverted islands, separated by competition and mutual distrust. It had the effect of atomising the previously vibrant urban society into a world of isolated cells, each citizen’s loyalties tied to their danwei, which managed every aspect of their lives, from cradle to grave, issuing permits for marriage, divorce and even childbirth.


Archaeological Evidence

Additional archaeological evidence shows that crossbow technology was widespread in China during the late Spring and Autumn Period. For example, a mid-5th century BCE grave from the State of Chu (Hubei Province) yielded bronze crossbow bolts, and a tomb burial in Saobatang, Hunan Province from the mid-4th century BCE also contained a bronze crossbow. Some of the Terracotta Warriors buried along with Qin Shi Huangdi (260-210 BCE) carry crossbows. The first known repeating crossbow was discovered in another 4th century BCE tomb in Qinjiazui, Hubei Province.


Section 3

A E-learning is a unifying term to describe the fields of online learning, web-based training, and technology-delivered instruction, which can be a great benefit to corporate e-learning. IBM, for instance, claims that the institution of its e-training program, Basic Blue, whose purpose is to train new managers, saved the company in the range of $200 million in 1999. Cutting the travel expenses required to bring employees and instructors to central classroom accounts for the lion’s share of the savings. With an online course, employees can learn from any Internet-connected PC, anywhere in the world. Ernst and Young reduced training costs by 35 per cent while improving consistency and scalability.

B In addition to generally positive economic benefits, other advantages such as convenience, standardized delivery, self-paced learning, and a variety of available content, have made e-learning a high priority for many corporations. E-learning is widely believed to offer flexible “any time, any place” learning. The claim for “any place” is valid in principle and is a great development. Many people can engage with rich learning materials that simply were not possible in a paper or broadcast distance learning era. For teaching specific information and skills, e-training holds great promise. It can be especially effective at helping employees prepare for IT certification programs. E-learning also seems to effectively address topics such as sexual harassment education,5 safety training and management training — all areas where a clear set of objectives can be identified. Ultimately, training experts recommend a “blended” approach that combines both online and in-person training as the instruction requires. E-learning is not an end-all solution. But if it helps decrease costs and windowless classrooms filled with snoring students, it definitely has its advantages.

C Much of the discussion about implementing e-learning has focused on the technology, but as Driscoll and others have reminded us, e-learning is not just about the technology, but also many human factors. As any capable manager knows, teaching employees new skills is critical to a smoothly run business. Having said that, however, the traditional route of classroom instruction runs the risk of being expensive, slow and, often times, ineffective. Perhaps the classroom’s greatest disadvantage is the fact that it takes employees out of their jobs. Every minute an employee is sitting in a classroom training session is a minute they’re not out on the floor working. It now looks as if there is a way to circumvent these traditional training drawbacks. E-training promises more effective teaching techniques by integrating audio, video, animation, text and interactive materials with the intent of teaching each student at his or her own pace. In addition to higher performance results, there are other immediate benefits to students such as increased time on task, higher levels of motivation, and reduced test anxiety for many learners. A California State University Northridge study reported that e-learners performed 20 percent better than traditional learners. Nelson reported a significant difference between the mean grades of 406 university students earned in traditional and distance education classes, where the distance learners outperformed the traditional learners.

D On the other hand, nobody said E-training technology would be cheap. E-training service providers, on the average, charge from $10,000 to $60,000 to develop one hour of online instruction. This price varies depending on the complexity of the training topic and the media used. HTML pages are a little cheaper to develop while streaming-video (presentations or flash animations cost more. Course content is just the starting place for the cost. A complete e-learning solution also includes the technology platform (the computers, applications and network connections that are used to deliver the courses). This technology platform, known as a learning management system (LMS), can either be installed onsite or outsourced. Add to that cost the necessary investments in network bandwidth to deliver multimedia courses, and you’re left holding one heck of a bill. For the LMS infrastructure and a dozen or so online courses, costs can top $500,000 in the first year. These kinds of costs mean that custom e-training is, for the time being, an option only for large organizations. For those companies that have a large enough staff, the e-training concept pays for itself. Aware of this fact, large companies are investing heavily in online training. Today, over half of the 400-plus courses that Rockwell Collins offers are delivered instantly to its clients in an e-leaming format, a change that has reduced its annual (training costs by 40%. Many other success stories exist.

E E-learning isn 7 1 expected to replace the classroom entirely. For one thing, bandwidth limitations are still an issue in presenting multimedia over the Internet. Furthermore, e-training isn’t suited to every mode of instruction or topic. For instance, it’s rather ineffective imparting cultural values or building teams. If your company has a unique corporate culture it would be difficult to convey that to first time employees through a computer monitor. Group training sessions are more ideal for these purposes. In addition, there is a perceived loss of research time because of the work involved in developing and teaching online classes. Professor Wallin estimated that it required between 500 and 1,000 person-hours, that is, Wallin-hours, to keep the course at the appropriate level of currency and usefulness. (Distance learning instructors often need technical skills, no matter how advanced the courseware system.) That amounts to between a quarter and half of a person-year. Finally, teaching materials require computer literacy and access to equipment. Any e-Learning system involves basic equipment and a minimum level of computer knowledge in order to perform the tasks required by the system. A student that does not possess these skills, or have access to these tools, cannot succeed in an e-Learning program.

F While few people debate the obvious advantages of e-learning, systematic research is needed to confirm that learners are actually acquiring and using the skills that are being taught online, and that e-learning is the best way to achieve the outcomes in a corporate environment. Nowadays, a go-between style of Blended learning, which refers to a mixing of different learning environments, is gaining popularity. It combines traditional face-to-face classroom methods with more modem computer-mediated activities. According to its proponents, the strategy creates a more integrated approach for both instructors and learners. Formerly, technology-based materials played a supporting role in face-to-face instruction. Through a blended learning approach, technology will be more important

Questions 28-33

The reading passage has seven paragraphs,A-F

Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-F from the list below. Write the correct number, i-xi in boxes 28-33 on your answer sheet.


Water-powered armillary sphere

Zhang Heng is the first person known to have applied hydraulic motive power (i.e. by employing a waterwheel and clepsydra, or water clock) to rotate an armillary sphere — an astronomical instrument representing the celestial sphere.

The sphere itself was rotated by a turning waterwheel, which in turn was powered by the constant pressure from the head of water in the water clock tank. His water-powered armillary influenced the design of later Chinese water clocks and led to the discovery of the escapement mechanism by the 8th century.

Zhang Heng’s water-powered armillary sphere had profound effects on Chinese astronomy and mechanical engineering in later generations.

In 132 AD, Zhang Heng presented to the Han court what many historians consider to be a seismometer. His bronze, urn-shaped device was called h oufeng didong yi (instrument for measuring the seasonal winds and the movements of the Earth), and had a swinging pendulum inside. As such, he was thus able to detect the direction of an earthquake hundreds of miles away.

This was essential for the Han authorities in sending quick aid and relief to regions devastated by this natural disaster. Later Chinese were able to reinvent Zhang’s seismometer.

‘The Book of Later Han’ hints that Zhang Heng was the first to make a mathematical grid reference on ancient China maps. (Image: Wikimedia Commons / CC0 1.0 )


Reconstruction Designs of Lost Ancient Chinese Machinery

Professor Hong-Sen YAN received his BS degree from National Cheng Kung University (Tianan, Taiwan) in 1973, MS degree from the University of Kentucky (Lexington, Kentucky, USA) in 1977, and PhD degree from Purdue University (Lafayette, Indiana, USA) in 1980, all in mechanical engineering.

He previously served as a mechanical engineer at China Technical Consultants Co. Ltd. (Taipei), an Associate Professor at National Cheng Kung University (Tainan), a Sr. Research Engineer at General Motor Research Laboratories (Michigan), an Associate Professor at the State University of New York at Stony Book (New York), and the Director-general of the National Science and Technology Museum (Kaohsiung). Currently, he is a Chair Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at National Cheng Kung University (Tainan, TAIWAN) and an Associate Editor of both the International Journal of Mechanism and Machine Theory and ASME Transactions Journal of Mechanical Design.

Dr. Yan’ s areas of interests are creative mechanism and machine design and ancient Chinese machinery. He has published more than 275 papers, holds 48 patents, and is the author of 3 books. Dr. Yan received many honors and academic awards inside and outside Taiwan, and he has a hobby of collecting ancient Chinese Locks.


Reconstruction Designs of Lost Ancient Chinese Machinery

Ancient China was outstanding in mechanical technology before the 15th century. Numerous ingenious machines were invented. However, due to incomplete documentation and loss of finished objects, most of the original machines cannot be verified and many of the inventions did not pass down to later generations. This book, based on the author’s research and teaching experiences over the last 20 years, is devoted to presenting an innovative methodology in the area of mechanical historiography for the systematic reconstruction design of ancient Chinese machines that have been lost to time. Its purpose is to generate all possible design concepts of lost machines. If the defined and/or concluded design specifications, topological characteristics, and - sign requirements and constraints are feasible, one of the resulting rec- struction designs should be the original design. Such an approach provides a logical tool for historians in ancient mechanical engineering and techn- ogy to further identify the possible original designs according to proven historical archives. However, this work will not deal with the credibility of historical literary works. It supposes that the lost machines existed, and tries to demonstrate the feasibility of reconstructing the lost designs. The book is organized in such a way that it can be used for teaching, research or self-study. Chapter 1 introduces the study, classifications, and process for the reconstruction design of ancient machinery.

Professor Hong-Sen YAN received his BS degree from National Cheng Kung University (Tianan, Taiwan) in 1973, MS degree from the University of Kentucky (Lexington, Kentucky, USA) in 1977, and PhD degree from Purdue University (Lafayette, Indiana, USA) in 1980, all in mechanical engineering.

He previously served as a mechanical engineer at China Technical Consultants Co. Ltd. (Taipei), an Associate Professor at National Cheng Kung University (Tainan), a Sr. Research Engineer at General Motor Research Laboratories (Michigan), an Associate Professor at the State University of New York at Stony Book (New York), and the Director-general of the National Science and Technology Museum (Kaohsiung). Currently, he is a Chair Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at National Cheng Kung University (Tainan, TAIWAN) and an Associate Editor of both the International Journal of Mechanism and Machine Theory and ASME Transactions Journal of Mechanical Design.

Dr. Yan’ s areas of interests are creative mechanism and machine design and ancient Chinese machinery. He has published more than 275 papers, holds 48 patents, and is the author of 3 books. Dr. Yan received many honors and academic awards inside and outside Taiwan, and he has a hobby of collecting ancient Chinese Locks.

“Always based on original sources, with a wealth of illustrations and translations of difficult Chinese classical texts, this outstanding book is particularly original. … a wide extant of difficult topics belonging to the history of technology has never been covered in such a systematic way and by using a unified methodology.” (J.-C. Martzloff, Zentralblatt MATH, Vol. 1181, 2010)


A Brief History of Qin Shi Huang

The Prince Becomes King

In 260 BCE, China was in a state of turmoil. Various feudal states divided the country, and the Warring States Period had lasted for 250 years. Seven individual kingdoms tried to establish their dominance and lay claim to the entire country. However, the strongest of these states was Qin. When King Zhuangxiang began his reign in September of 250 BCE, it appeared that he would become China’s first emperor. However, his reign was short-lived. After just three years in power, he died.

King Zhuangxiang’s heir was his young son named Ying Zheng. A regent served as temporary ruler until the young king was old enough to rule on his own. Ying Zheng exhibited traits from the very beginning that marked him as calculating and fearless. At the age of 21, he led a revolt against his regent who tried to maintain control. This culminated in bloodshed and removed every obstacle to the king’s reign.

‘Son of Heaven’ Unifies China

Despite multiple assassination attempts, the King of Qin managed one successful campaign after another until he defeated all rival states throughout the land. In 221 BCE, the warrior king accomplished something no other leader had. He united the kingdom and created the first Chinese empire. Although he was a harsh despotic ruler, he left behind important legacies: the Great Wall, a vast network of roads that connected his empire, and one system of weights, measures, money, and writing.

As he approached his 40th year, the king proclaimed himself ‘Qin Shi Huangdi,’ a name that conveyed his power as the first high-god (or godlike emperor) of Qin. According to Chinese belief, Zheng’s successes conferred upon him the mandate of heaven. As the ‘Son of Heaven’ he would rule from the center of the universe like a god. From this point, the emperor became obsessed with maintaining his divine power (and possessions) – even in the afterlife.


The Shang Dynasty or Yin Dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC. Archaeological work at the Ruins of Yin (near modern-day Anyang), which has been identified as the last Shang capital, uncovered eleven major Yin royal tombs and the foundations of palaces and ritual sites, containing weapons of war and remains from both animal and human sacrifices.

The Tomb of Fu Hao is an archaeological site at Yinxu, the ruins of the ancient Shang Dynasty’s capital Yin, within the modern city of Anyang in Henan Province, China. Discovered in 1976, it was identified as the final resting place of the queen and military general Fu Hao. The artefacts unearthed within the grave included jade objects, bone objects, bronze objects etc. These grave goods are confirmed by the oracle texts, which constitute almost all of the first hand written record we possess of the Shang Dynasty. Below the corpse was a small pit holding the remains of six sacrificial dogs and along the edge lay the skeletons of human slaves, evidence of human sacrifice.

The Terracotta Army was discovered on 29 March 1974 to the east of Xi’an In Shaanxi. The terracotta soldiers were accidentally discovered when a group of local farmers was digging a well during a drought around 1.6 km (1 mile) east of the Qin Emperor’s tomb around at Mount Li (Lishan), a region riddled with underground springs and watercourses. Experts currently place the entire number of soldiers at 8,000 – with 130 chariots (130 cm long), 530 horses and 150 cavalry horses helping to ward off any dangers in the afterlife. In contrast, the burial of Tutankhamun yielded six complete but dismantled chariots of unparalleled richness and sophistication. Each was designed for two people (90 cm long) and had its axle sawn through to enable it to be brought along the narrow corridor into the tomb.

Excavation of ancient Chinese chariots has confirmed the descriptions of them in the earliest texts. Wheels were constructed from a variety of woods: elm provided the hub, rose-wood the spokes and oak the felloes. The hub was drilled through to form an empty space into which the tempered axle was fitted, the whole being covered with leather to retain lubricating oil. Though the number of spokes varied, a wheel by the fourth century BC usually had eighteen to thirty-two of them. Records show how elaborate was the testing of each completed wheel: flotation and weighing were regarded as the best measures of balance, but even the empty spaces in the assembly were checked with millet grains. One outstanding constructional asset of the ancient Chinese wheel was dishing. Dishing refers to the dish-like shape of an advanced wooden wheel, which looks rather tike a flat cone. On occasion they chose to strengthen a dished wheel with a pair of struts running from rim to rim on each of the hub. As these extra supports were inserted separately into the felloes, they would have added even greater strength to the wheel. Leather wrapped up the edge of the wheel aimed to retain bronze.

Within a millennium, however, Chinese chariot-makers had developed a vehicle with shafts, the precursor of the true carriage or cart. This design did not make its appearance in Europe until the end of the Roman Empire. Because the shafts curved upwards, and the harness pressed against a horse’s shoulders, not his neck, the shaft chariot was incredibly efficient. The halberd was also part of a chariot standard weaponry. This halberd usually measured well over 3 metres in length, which meant that a chariot warrior wielding it sideways could strike down the charioteer in a passing chariot. The speed of the chariot which was tested on the sand was quite fast. At speed these passes were very dangerous for the crews of both chariots.

The advantages offered by the new chariots were not entirely missed They could see how there were literally the Warring States, whose conflicts lasted down the Qin unification of China. Qin Shi Huang was buried in the most opulent tomb complex ever constructed in China, a sprawling, city-size collection of underground caverns containing evening the emperor would need for the afterlife. Even a collection of terracotta armies called Terra-Cotta Warriors was buried in it. The ancient Chinese, along with many cultures including ancient Egyptians, believed that items and even people buried with a person could be taken with him to the afterlife.

Questions 14-17

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?

In boxes 14-17 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

14. When Tomb of Fu Hao was discovered, the written records of the grave goods proved to be accurate.

15. Human skeletons in Anyang tomb were identified as soldiers who were killed in the war.

16. The Terracotta Army was discovered by people who lived nearby by chance.

17. The size of the King Tutankhamun’s tomb is bigger than that of Qin Emperor’s tomb.

Questions 18-23

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND/OR NUMBERS from the passage for each answer.

Write your answer in boxes 18-23 on your answer sheet.

18. The hub is made of wood from the tree of __________.

19. The room through the hub was to put tempered axle, which is wrapped up by leather, aiming to retain _______.

20. The number of spokes varies from __________.

21. The shape of wheel resembles a __________.

22. Two ________ was used to strengthen the wheel.

23. The edge of the wheel was wrapped up by leather aiming to retain ________.

Questions 24-26

Answer the questions below.

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passages for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 24-26 on your answer sheet.

24. What body part of the horse was released from pressure to the horse shoulder after the appearance of the shafts?

25. What kind of road surface did the researchers measure the speed of the chariot on?

26. What part of the afterlife palace was the Emperor Qin Shi Huang buried in?


Traditional Chinese Military Uniforms

This is a 2,200-year old military armour made of pieces of thin slate, unearthed from Emperor Qin’s tomb.

Each piece is crafted with a certain curve and has tiny sowing holes, that allow the entire helmet and armour to be assembled using brazen threads.

This is a statue of a general in full military gear erected by the path leading to 13 Ming emperors’ tombs in the outskirts of Beijing.
This is a colour ink painting produced by an ancient court artist about the royal army’s military expedition, which faithfully illustrates ancient Chinese servicemen in their Chinese-style military uniform.