Arthur Lee - History

Arthur Lee - History

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Lee, Arthur (1740-1792) Diplomat: Arthur Lee, brother of Declaration of Independence signatory Richard Henry Lee, was born in Virginia. He was educated at Eton and received a studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh. Admitted to the English bar, he was involved in many intellectual activities, including botany, and was a fellow of the Royal Society of London. He wrote revolutionary tracts and letters in Virginia, as well as in London. An Appeal, his most famous work, was published in 1774. While living in England, he provided information to American patriot leaders and Congress' Committee of Secret Correspondence. At the same time, he submitted petitions on behalf of the colonies. He was sole agent for Massachusetts after 1775, and was named to Congress' commission to France in 1776, adding diplomatic visits to Spain and Prussia. Along with diplomats Benjamin Franklin and Silas Deane, Lee concluded the 1778 treaty with France, but was called back to North America the next year. Lee served in the Virginia Assembly and Congress in 1781, helped negotiate treaties with Native Americans in 1784 and 1785, and sat on the Board of Treasury from 1785 to 1789.

Arthur Lee

In the mid-1960s, it looked as if Arthur Lee and Love would become one of the dominant bands of their era, alongside fellow Los Angeles groups such as the Doors and the Byrds. Yet despite recording at least one masterpiece, Forever Changes (1967), Love were plagued by personal problems and infighting. Lee, who has died aged 61 of leukaemia, never quite lived up to his own mythology, although he had been rebuilding his career after time in jail.

Lee was born in Memphis, the son of white trumpeter Chester Taylor and Agnes, a black schoolteacher. His parents divorced after moving to Los Angeles and he took his stepfather Clinton Lee's name. He began playing piano at 10, and was educated at Dorsey high school.

His musical career started in the early 1960s with him playing surf music, dance numbers and novelty tunes, sometimes with a band - such as Arthur Lee & the LAG's or the American Four - or as a jobbing songwriter. He wrote My Diary for r&b singer Rosa Brooks, I've Been Trying for Little Ray and Slow Jerk for Ronnie & the Pomona Casuals.

Love evolved out of folk-rock group the Grass Roots and by late 1965 were building a reputation for their dynamic live shows around the Sunset Strip and at Bido Lito's in Hollywood. They were the first rock group to be signed by Jac Holzman's folk label, Elektra.

Original guitarist Johnny Echols was a childhood friend from Memphis and Lee was proud to have formed rock's first mixed-race band. "I lived in Tennessee until I was five years old, and it was segregated," said Lee. "A multiracial band was my thought from the beginning."

The first album, Love (1966), sounded like a compilation of styles borrowed from various US and British invasion groups, but a cover of the Bacharach-David song My Little Red Book (from the film What's New Pussycat?) earned some airplay. In September 1966, the single 7 and 7 Is - later dubbed "the first punk song" by Lee - pierced the top 40, and was a trailer for Love's second album, Da Capo (1967). This elaborate work reflected the scale of Lee's ambitions, a little too much so in the case of Revelation, which filled all of side two. It climbed no higher than 80 on the charts.

The band, living in a decrepit Hollywood mansion once owned by Bela Lugosi and absorbing copious quantities of drugs, pressed on with their next album. A mix of sublime melodies, haunting arrangements and lyrics veering from blissed-out to almost-psychotic ensured that Forever Changes has been considered a classic artefact ever since its late-1967 release. Several songs, notably Alone Again Or, And More Again and A House is Not a Motel, came to define the possibilities and menace of flower-power Los Angeles: "Sitting on a hillside watching all the people die," sang Lee, "I'll feel much better on the other side."

Love's masterwork wasn't a bestseller and Lee expressed his frustration by rebuilding the group. Four Sail (1969) was their last Elektra album, and material left over formed the basis of the 1969 double LP, Out Here, on Blue Thumb. Yet another line-up made 1970's aptly-named False Start, but shortly after its release Lee sacked the band.

A solo album, Vindicator, in 1972 divided opinion but there was still no commercial breakthrough. Lee recorded Black Beauty for the Buffalo label, but the company's collapse torpedoed its release (it belatedly appeared in 1997).

Lee continued to assemble new versions of Love, sometimes featuring co-founder Bryan MacLean, but their appeal grew increasingly nostalgic. In 1987, the Damned had a British top 30 hit with a cover of Alone Again Or.

In 1996, Lee struck up a musical rapport with a young LA rock group, Baby Lemonade. However, the accident-prone singer was arrested for firing a gun outside his apartment. Previous convictions earned him a 12-year jail sentence in Pleasant Valley state prison, California, but he was released early in December 2001. The experience seemed to focus Lee's mind, and he emerged with new musical ideas which he set about developing with Baby Lemonade, who became the newest Love. Exploiting the vogue for reviving classic albums, pioneered by Brian Wilson with Pet Sounds, Lee also assembled a 15-piece orchestra to perform Forever Changes, which played to packed houses.

Lee's illness prompted outpourings of support from musicians including former Led Zeppelin singer Robert Plant, who headlined a benefit concert in New York in June. An experimental stem cell transplant failed to halt Lee's illness.

He is survived by his wife Diane.

· Arthur Lee (Arthur Taylor Porter), musician, born March 7 1945 died August 3 2006



Tajnai, Carolyn E. "Samuel Was Artificial Intelligence Pioneer," Computing Research News, Jan. 1991.

Weiss, Eric, "Arthur Samuel," Ann. Hist. Comp. , Vol. 14, No. 3,1992, pp. 55-68.

Significant Publications

Samuel, A.L., "Artificial Intelligence: A Frontier of Automation," Ann. American Acad. Political and Social Science , Vol. 340, Mar. 1962, pp. 10-20.

Samuel, Arthur L., "Some Studies in Machine Learning Using the Game of Checkers," in Feigenbaum, Edward A., and Julian Feldman, eds., Computers and Thought, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1983, pp. 71-105.

Arthur “Art” Lee Shell, Jr. (1946- )

Collegiate, professional football player, coach, and advocate Arthur Lee Shell Jr. was born November 26, 1946, in North Charleston, South Carolina, to Arthur Lee Shell, Sr, a machine set operator, and Gertrude Shell, a homemaker. During his sophomore year at Bonds-Wilson High School, his mother died when he was 15 years old. As the oldest sibling, he reared his brothers and sisters while attending school.

After graduating in 1964 Shell enrolled in Maryland State College, Eastern Shore, (now the University of Maryland Eastern Shore). He also starred on offense and defense at the college, playing in 207 games with 169 starts. He was named All-Conference for three years, All-America two years by the Pittsburgh Courier and Ebony magazine, and little All-America as a senior in 1967.

In 1968, Shell graduated from Maryland State College, Eastern Shore, receiving a Bachelor of Science degree in Industrial Arts. He was also a third-round draft pick of the Oakland Raiders where he played offensive tackle. With his agility, size, speed, and strength, he became a star on the Raiders team.

In 1973, Shell married Janice Jeter from Monroe, Georgia. He is the father of three sons, Arthur III, Christopher, and Billie Dureyea Shell, the author of the book Scandalous: Family or Not, Some People Can’t Be Trusted.

Shell played in eight Pro Bowl games and 23 post-season contests, including eight American Football League/American Football Conference (AFL/AFC) championships and the Raiders’ victories in Super Bowls XI and XV. During his career from 1968 to 1983 Shell was selected for eight Pro Bowls and was named 1st Team All-Pro twice.

In 1981 Shell pledged the Gamma Chi Lambda Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity in San Francisco in 1981 and two years later in 1983, soon after he retired from playing football, he became the Raiders’ offensive line coach. From 1989 to 1994, Shell was the head coach for the Los Angeles Raiders, compiling a record of 54 wins, 38 losses, and was named AFC Coach of the Year in 1990 as the Raiders won the AFC West division with a 12-4 record, and advanced to the AFC championship game in the playoffs. Shell was only the second African American NFL head coach after Fritz Pollard in the 1920s.

In 1999, The Sporting News ranked Shell as Number 55 of the 100 greatest NFL players of all time. Also, he was the 15th head coach in Raiders history and the first athlete to hold the position twice. During his first time as head coach, the Raiders went 12-4, capturing the AFC Western Division crown for the first time in five years and won the franchise’s first playoff game since Super Bowl XVIII.

In 2004 Shell was named Senior Vice President over football operations for the NFL. He was fired four days after the end of a 2-14 season. However, he was re-hired by the Raiders as head coach in 2006 after a 12-year hiatus from coaching.

In 1989, 2012, and 2013 Shell was selected to the Pro Football Hall of Fame, Black College Hall of Fame, and the College Football Hall of Fame, respectively. Besides, in 2015, he was inducted into the South Carolina Football Hall of Fame.

Guinness Book of Records

Now it’s the time to talk about the famous Guinness Book of Records, which today is known by all, young and old. Legend has it that the idea of its creation came to a managing director Sir Hugh Beaver (1890 – 1967) when one day he looked in a bar. During a conversation with friends, he told them a story of how he had been on the hunt and had not been able to shoot a golden plover. One of the Beaver’s friends said that this bird was the fastest in the world, and Hugh could not catch it even if he really wanted to. His statement was objected by a friend of him who assured that the plover was not the fastest bird.

The Guinness World Records logo, Publication date 1955–present

It was then that it dawned on Hugh Beaver that all over the globe there were thousands of disputes like that that take place in such small gatherings over a pint of beer. He decided that he should create a book that would contain evidence of formal records in various fields. Soon, Hugh Beaver talked with one of the major news agencies, based in London. During the meeting, Beaver and his new companions concluded that the release of such a book could be a very right way, which would bring them a good income.

And there was a Guinness World Records, which quickly became the best selling book in the world (of course, not counting the Bible).

The Lee Family of Virginia

The Lee Family of Virginia has enjoyed a long and illustrious history, and is a significant family in Virginia, starting in 1642 with the arrival of Richard Lee. Some of the more prominent Lee family members are best known for their accomplishments in the military and politics. Richard Lee (1610-1664) emigrated from England, settled in Jamestown, and fathered the Lee line of Virginia. Lee was a member of the Coton branch of the Lees of Shropshire, England. He came to America in 1641 as secretary of the King's Privy Council. In 1642, Lee received a land grant of 1,000 acres. By 1648, he had patented* other large tracts of land in York, Gloucester, and in upper Norfolk counties. During his life he was at various times a justice and member of the council. He served as attorney general of the colony in 1643, secretary of the colony in 1651, and burgess of York in 1663. That year, Lee returned to England to settle his English estate and arrange for his children's education, returning thereafter to Virginia. Thomas Lee (1690-1750) was an agent for the Proprietary of the Northern Neck, a member of the House of Burgesses, naval officer of the Potomac, founder of the Ohio Company, a diplomat to the Treaty of Lancaster, and an acting governor of Virginia. Philip Ludwell Lee (1727-1775) served as a judge, officer in the militia, elected official in the House of Burgesses, and member of the governing Council of Virginia. A member of the Ohio Company, he was appointed a justice of the peace for Westmoreland County. Thomas Ludwell Lee (1730-1778) served in the Virginia Senate from 1776 to 1778. His career was cut short soon after his election to Virginia's first supreme court. At the age of 48, he died of rheumatic fever. Richard Henry Lee (1732-1794) was a justice of the peace for Westmoreland County in 1757, a member of the House of Burgesses from 1758 to 1775, a member of the Continental Congress (1774-1779, 1784-1785, and 1787), and served as president of the Congress in 1784. Lee was a signer of the Declaration of Independence, a member of the state house of delegates (1777, 1780, and 1785), served as colonel of the Westmoreland militia, and was a member of the Virginia convention that ratified the Federal Constitution in 1788. He was elected to the U.S. Senate and served from 1789 until 1792. He also served as president pro tempore during the second Congress. Francis Lightfoot Lee (1734-1797) was a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses from 1758 to 1772. He was elected to the Continental Congress in 1775 and served until 1779. Lee was a signer of the Declaration of Independence and was a member of the State house of delegates in 1780 and 1781. He also served in the Virginia State senate, beginning in 1778 and ending in 1782. William Lee (1739-1795). In July 1773, Lee was elected Sheriff of London. He was the Continental Congress’s commercial agent in French ports. Lee later became the commissioner to the courts of Berlin and Vienna. Arthur Lee (1740-1792). Graduating with honors from Edinburgh University after earning a degree in medicine, Lee also studied law in London before leaving those careers to write political tracts in support of the colonies. The Continental Congress named Lee its secret agent in London. He initiated a flow of supplies between France and America, and was named by Congress as Commissioner to the court of Versailles. Henry "Light Horse Harry" Lee III (1756-1818). As a cavalry commander, Lee captured the fort at Paulus Hook, for which he received the Congressional Gold Medal in 1779. He was elected to Congress in 1785 and was governor of Virginia from 1791 to 1794. Lee was a Federalist congressman from 1799 to 1801. He was the father of Robert E. Lee, the great Confederate general. Robert Edward Lee (1807–1870) was the son of Henry “Light-Horse Harry” Lee, and general-in-chief of the Confederate armies in the Civil War. He graduated second in his class from West Point in 1829, and was the superintendent at the academy from 1852 to 1855. That year, he was made lieutenant colonel of the Second Cavalry and sent to west Texas. Lee commanded and fought conscientiously in the Union Army until Virginia seceded from the Union. As a general, and advisor to Confederate president Jefferson Davis, Lee fought bravely through numerous campaigns. Following the Confederacy's collapse, Lee graciously surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant at the Appomattox Courthouse. Following the war, Lee became president of Washington College, now Washington and Lee University. George Washington Custis Lee (1832–1913) was the eldest son of Robert E. Lee and a Confederate general in the Civil War. He was aide-de-camp to President Jefferson Davis through most of the conflict. Lee was promoted to major general in 1864, but was captured at Sailor’s Creek in 1865. From 1865 to 1871, Lee was a professor of civil and military engineering at the Virginia Military Institute, and succeeded his father as president of Washington and Lee University from 1871 until 1897. William Henry Fitzhugh Lee (1837–1891), known as Rooney Lee, was a son of Robert E. Lee. He was a Confederate cavalry general in the Civil War. Lee entered Harvard in 1854, but left in 1857 when he secured a commission in the infantry. After serving under Albert S. Johnston in the campaign against the Mormons, he resigned in 1859 and lived at White House, his Virginia plantation, until the war began. Lee served in J.E.B. Stuart’s cavalry. Wounded at Brandy Station in June 1863, he was subsequently captured. Upon his exchange in 1864, Lee was promoted to major general and served until the end of the war. From 1887 to his death, Lee was a Democratic representative in Congress. Many more Lees of the Virginia clan, past and present, have served their state well, securing their family’s place and times in history.

*A grant made by a government that confers on an individual fee-simple title to public lands.

Arthur Lee Dixon

Arthur Lee Dixon was the second son of the Rev George Thomas Dixon ( born in Brigg, Lincolnshire about 1838) , who was the Wesleyan Minister of Northallerton. His mother was Ellen Cardew ( born in Alford, Lincolnshire about 1842) and he was the younger brother of Alfred Cardew Dixon. Arthur was educated at Kingswood School in Bath which he attended from 1879 to 1885 . This school was a Methodist school founded by Wesley, the founder of Methodism. After leaving Kingswood School Arthur Dixon entered Worcester College, Oxford, where he studied mathematics, graduating in 1889 .

Arthur Dixon won a prize fellowship to Merton College, Oxford, where he was appointed in 1891 . Merton College was one of the Oxford Colleges with a strong historical mathematical connection, since the first school of mathematics there was organised by Thomas Bradwardine in the middle of the 14 th Century.

He was elected to a further fellowship when he became Tutorial Fellow in 1898 , and four years later, in 1902 , he married Catherine Rieder in Paris. However Dixon experienced problems due to his wife's health:-

Dixon's fellowship allowed him to remain at Merton College until he was appointed to the Savilian chair of pure mathematics in Oxford in 1922 . Arthur and Catherine Dixon had one daughter and after Catherine's death in 1930 , Dixon made his home with his daughter who by this time was married to F J Baden Fuller and living in Sandgate, Kent. He continued to hold the Savilian chair of pure mathematics at Oxford until he retired in 1945 .

Arthur Dixon always said that the biggest influences on his study of mathematics were Elliott, who inspired his particular line of research, and C L Dodgson whom he once met. His mathematics, very much in the English tradition of Cayley, studied applications of algebra to geometry, elliptic functions and hyperelliptic functions.

In 1908 Dixon began a series of publications on algebraic eliminants, carrying the subject forward from the point where Cayley had left it. He also published a number of papers on the cubic surface, studying lines on the surface, and other topics such as the Schur quadric. In the latter part of his career, Dixon published a series of around twelve joint papers with W L Ferrar on analytic number theory, summation formulae, Bessel functions and other topics in analysis.

In 1912 Arthur Dixon was honoured by being elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. He was also a strong supporter of the London Mathematical Society, serving as its President in 1924 - 26 . His younger brother, Alfred Cardew Dixon, would hold this same office five years later.

Arthur Dixon shared with Elliott, who had inspired him, an old-fashioned approach to mathematics. Chaundy, writing in [ 2 ] , describes Dixon's feelings on this as follows:-

Dixon had many talents in addition to his mathematical ones. He was a great sportsman who played hockey, tennis, squash and croquet. Another side of this many talented man was his skills as a linguist and his great musical talents ( he played the flute in a local orchestra ) .

The Man Who Inspired Hendrix: The Crazy World Of Arthur Lee & Love

If you’d been hanging out in Los Angeles any time in the summer of 1966, there would have been a high chance of stumbling across Arthur Lee. He might have been wearing just one shoe, or swimming trunks he’d almost certainly be peering over a pair of psychedelic sunglasses. But then Lee could do what the hell he wanted. Barely 21 years old, he was the undisputed King Of The Sunset Strip: the most arrogant, brown-eyed, handsome man in Hollyweird. Lee and his band, Love, were helping usher in a whole new era of Californian music.

Sure, there were more commercially successful bands: The Byrds already had a run of hit singles and a European tour under their buckskin jackets by early ’66, and Brian Wilson was taking the Beach Boys to new creative heights even as his psyche crumbled under the weight of it all. But neither had such a charismatic, striking frontman as Lee. A singer and multi-instrumentalist, he was a lightning rod for the denizens of the burgeoning West Coast underground. &ldquoHe cut an imposing figure,&rdquo says Jimmy Greenspoon, a future member of Love’s LA contemporaries Three Dog Night. &ldquoHe had a mesmerising presence, a Pied Piper who would lead Love’s audience to a different form of consciousness.&rdquo

Love were the unsung heroes of the musical Big Bang that took place in 1966, although they have long been overshadowed by bands such as the Grateful Dead, Jefferson Airplane and especially one-time acolytes The Doors. If Love are remembered today, it’s for their third album, 1967’s Forever Changes, a masterpiece of baroque psychedelia. But a year before that, they blew a hurricane through Los Angeles. And Arthur Lee was at the eye of the storm.

In the sun-bleached Los Angeles of the 1960s, Lee stood out from his peers. An only child, he was born in Memphis to a white jazz-musician father and a mother with both African-American and Native-American roots. He was unambiguous about ethnicity. &ldquoI’ve been black my whole life,&rdquo he said in the 70s. By the time he was five, his parents had divorced and he’d moved with his mother, Agnes, to the historic West Adams district of Los Angeles.

As a swaggering teenager brimming with attitude, his musical tastes encompassed Nat King Cole and Johnny Mathis to The Beatles, The Who and the Rolling Stones (he once compared himself to Mick Jagger &ndash &ldquoa black American imitating a white Englishman imitating a black American&rdquo). One big influence close to home were The Byrds, who he first saw at Hollywood club Ciro’s in 1964. &ldquoI heard Mr Tambourine Man, and didn’t have to hear any more,&rdquo he later recalled. &ldquoI’d been writing things like that for a long time, but they didn’t fit the shows I was doing. Now here was something not quite dance music but definitely folk rock.&rdquo

Lee’s early attempts at music were naïve. As Arthur Lee And The LAGs (the acronym stood for &lsquoLos Angeles Group’, in the same way that Booker T’s MG’s was a shortening of &lsquoMemphis Group’) he recorded a single, the Booker T-inspired instrumental The Ninth Wave, for Capitol Records.

Lee wasn’t just keeping songs for himself. In 1964 he wrote My Diary for R&B singer Rosa Lee Brooks. Searching for musicians to play on the session, he enlisted a little-known guitarist from Seattle called James Marshall Hendrix, who had recently been playing with the Isley Brothers. &ldquoI wanted someone who could sound like Curtis Mayfield,&rdquo he later said of Hendrix.

The pair had a mutual respect, but also an uneasy relationship. Lee would claim that the guitarist took some of his cues from him. &ldquoJimi’s brother told me Hendrix took a look at my first album and said: &lsquoI think I’ll try it this way’. He stole my dress attire, and I don’t appreciate that shit. But then I can’t play the guitar like him at all.&rdquo

That might have been true, but then Lee could sure write great songs, some of which he gifted to other LA acts. They included Everybody Jerk and Slow Jerk, recorded in 1964 by Ronnie & The Pomona Casuals on the back of the Jerk dance craze, and I Been Trying, cut by Little Ray the following year.

Other songs he kept for himself. Most notable was Luci Baines, a Latino-influenced garage rock call-out-the-dance stomp modelled on the Isley Brothers’ Twist And Shout and named after the daughter of then-US Vice President, Lyndon B Johnson. The track was recorded by Arthur’s latest band, the American Four &ndash Lee plus his childhood friend from Memphis, guitarist Johnny Echols, and John Fleckenstein and John Jacobson, a pair of schoolfriends they met in Hollywood. Luci Baines was the first time anyone had captured Lee’s maniacal vocal and adrenalised, proto-punky thrash. He had finally found his own voice.

The American Four rehearsed in Arthur’s mum’s garage, before launching themselves on the burgeoning LA club circuit in late 1964, playing anything from chintzy nightclubs to seedy backrooms. Lee’s volatile temperament and take-no-shit approach was evident early on. During a break between sets at one show, a fist-fight broke out between Lee and Fleckenstein in the parking lot. &ldquoFleck was a football star at Hollywood High School,&rdquo John Jacobson recalled, &ldquobut Arthur put him down in two punches.&rdquo

In April 1965, the American Four took up residency at Brave New World, a gay bar on Melrose Avenue. Gradually, the existing clientele drifted away, replaced by a straight crowd. At the same time, the American Four changed their name to the Grass Roots, inspired partly by Message To The Grass Roots, an album by black American activist Malcolm X, as well as being a nod to their drug of choice.

Over the next few months, musicians drifted in and out of the Grass Roots. One was guitarist Bobby Beausoleil &ndash &lsquoBummer Bob’ to his bandmates &ndash who joined when Lee decided he wanted to focus on singing and banging a tambourine. When Lee was unable to pay his wages, Beausoleil was fired. He subsequently fell in with Charles Manson’s &lsquoFamily’, and is currently serving a life sentence for stabbing a schoolteacher to death in 1969.

Beausoleil’s replacement would prove to be much more significant to the band. Bryan MacLean was a hip LA musician and scenester. Born to wealthy Hollywood stock, he’d befriended Jack Nicholson, dated Liza Minnelli and wangled a job as David Crosby’s gofer on a recent Byrds tour, before unsuccessfully auditioning for a role in The Monkees. MacLean’s red-blond hair and Wasp-y good looks were matched by his musical talents. Cannily, one of the reasons Arthur hired him was because of his connections to the Byrds’ crowd &ndash including their groupies &ndash who he could draw to his band’s shows.

There was just one obstacle. Another, more successful LA band were using the Grass Roots moniker, forcing a seething Lee to change the name of his own band. In Bryan MacLean and Johnny Echols’s version, they passed a billboard advertising Luv Brasseries on Melrose Avenue. When Johnny informed Bryan that Arthur used to work there, they decided to present the name to the singer, albeit in a more traditional spelling. And so, in August 1965, the Grass Roots became Love.

For all his talent, Lee &ndash and Love &ndash could easily have been overlooked had Jac Holzman, president of New York’s Elektra Records, not decided to take a trip to the West Coast in late 1965. Having missed out on the Lovin’ Spoonful, and tiring of the Big Apple’s tourist-trap folk scene, Holzman flew to LA in search of something new. Browsing local listings for ideas, he was drawn to a show by Love at Bido Lito’s Club, a claustrophobic brick enclave in a cul-de-sac known as Cosmo Alley. Holzman was instantly sold.

&ldquoI saw Arthur on stage,&rdquo Holzman says today, &ldquoand I knew this was &lsquomy band’ and that I was going to do whatever it took to sign Love. If the hairs on the back of my neck go up, I pay close attention. Bido Lito’s was a scene from Dante’s Inferno: bodies crushing into each other silken-clad girls with ironed blonde hair. Love were cranking out [covers of] Hey Joe and My Little Red Book, a song by Bacharach & David in the Woody Allen movie What’s New Pussycat? &ndash hip but straight. And here was Arthur Lee going at it with manic intensity.&rdquo

Love didn’t have management or a booking agent, which allowed Holzman to deal directly with Lee. When he offered the band a deal with his label, there was little reluctance from Lee. Within a few weeks, Elektra had rushed them into Sunset Sound Studio to record their debut album, with Holzman producing his first rock record alongside trusted accomplice Mark Abramson and 21-year-old engineer Bruce Botnick. The latter was amazed that the band completed the task. &ldquoArthur was stoned twenty-four hours a day,&rdquo he later recalled.

Most of the songs that made up the album were already in Love’s live set, including the MacLean-written Softly To Me. &ldquoWe were just getting the hang of it when we made the album,&rdquo MacLean said.

As well as Lee, Echols and MacLean, playing on the Love album were ex-Surfaris bassist Ken Forssi and Swiss-born drummer Alban &lsquoSnoopy’ Pfisterer. The latter replaced Don Conka, who had been sacked after spiralling into heroin addiction. Conka was the subject of Signed DC, a detailed account of a user every bit as harrowing as the Velvet Underground’s Heroin, which it preceded by six months.

The Velvets themselves were early Love fans &ndash their guitarist Sterling Morrison remembered his band’s attempts to cover Love’s raucous version of My Little Red Book, trying to unravel the rhythm and failing miserably. The rest of the Love album bridged the worlds of Californian folk rock, proto-garage rock and the first glimmerings of psychedelia, even if it didn’t quite scale the same heights as The Byrds.

Featuring a distinctive logo designed by Elektra’s Bill Harvey, the cover of Love showed the band in the grounds of The Castle, the red-brick mansion in LA’s Beachwood Canyon once owned by horror star Bela Lugosi. Love had taken up unofficial residence in The Castle, squatting there in early 1966. They would be visited by friends and fellow musicians including Jim Morrison, Nico, John Phillips of the Mamas And The Papas and the Rolling Stones’ Brian Jones.

&ldquoEnter The Castle at your own risk,&rdquo Lee recalled. &ldquoThe doors were always open. There was no violence in The Castle though, no guns. The bands never fought each other. Oh, but one day I was leaning off my balcony and Bryan MacLean wandered up to Jim Morrison by the pool and Jim slapped him round the face. Funniest thing I ever seen.&rdquo

Holed up in their own Xanadu, Lee and Love would ingest copious LSD and then hit town to bask in starlight. Their reputation was spreading, their profile growing as they were moving up the LA food chain. &ldquoIt was crazy because we’d been living in a cheap motel room, but now we had cars and were dating Playboy bunnies,&rdquo says Johnny Echols. &ldquoAnything you imagine happening at the Playboy Mansion happened at The Castle. The Castle was a Love Inn where local musicians would socialise and party.&rdquo

Despite the wanton air of hedonism in which he was immersed, Lee handled Love’s finances. &ldquoI wasn’t materialistic,&rdquo he told me, &ldquoI just didn’t trust the others with the money.&rdquo Not that he himself was hugely reliable.

&ldquoHe wanted a five-thousand-dollar advance for the record,&rdquo says Herb Cohen, who managed the band briefly. &ldquoSo Love arranged to meet Holzman at the bank. Jac cashed the cheque and counted out the five-thousand dollars in fifty-dollar bills, after which Arthur tells the other guys &lsquoWait at the hotel. I have to get something.’ Arthur returns a few hours later and shows them a two-door Gullwing Mercedes, telling them that this was for the band and their equipment. No one says a word. Then he hands each guy a hundred dollars &ndash all that’s left of the advance.&rdquo

&ldquoArthur had a curious sense of cubic capacity,&rdquo says Holzman. &ldquoThat car was just big enough for him, his girlfriend and his brand new harmonica.&rdquo

Lee got a dose of reality when Love came out in March 1966, and it only made No.57 on the Billboard chart. My Little Red Book, released as their first single, didn’t do much better.

It was on stage where Love truly ruled. Michael Stuart, drummer with local LA outfit the Sons Of Adam and a future member of Love, saw plenty of shows where Lee lorded it over his group.

&ldquoArthur was decked out in his multicoloured sunglasses, combat boot &ndash one only &ndash and scowl, banging the hell out of his tambourine,&rdquo he recalls. &ldquoJohn Echols had a lead-guitar style like no other: loud and frantic, soft and melodic. Jazz, rock, classical and flamenco… he could do it all. Played a double-necked Mosrite twelve-string and six-string &ndash equally accomplished on either neck. Bryan MacLean, eyes closed, head tilted to his chest, appeared to be asleep while he played.&rdquo

Despite the apparent air of bliss, there were strains between Lee and MacLean. Jealous of the attention his bandmate was getting from the girls, Lee would openly criticise his playing. MacLean’s mother, Elizabeth McKee, witnessed this friction at one gig in mid-1966. &ldquoI had never seen Love live, and I went to the Whisky,&rdquo she remembered. &ldquoI got right under Bryan’s nose, and Arthur was saying to him: &lsquoDon’t play, you’re out of tune!’ Bryan kept his eyes straight ahead, kept playing and ignored him.&rdquo

That summer, Love left LA to show the San Francisco hippies how it was done. They played three shows at the Avalon Ballroom’s Hupmobile-8 in May, with Captain Beefheart and Janis Joplin watching from the wings. In July they headlined the Independence Ball over the Grateful Dead at the Calliope Warehouse in San Francisco, and topped the bill over Big Brother And The Holding Company at the Avalon Ballroom again. In August they astounded the Fillmore auditorium, before returning to LA for a series of Whisky A Go Go shows &ndash including matinees &ndash with The Doors as special guests.

Doors drummer John Densmore was an early fan of Love and of Lee’s. &ldquoI was a jazz snob running round Hollywood,&rdquo he says. &ldquoI stumbled in and here’s this group who are mixed racially, deafeningly loud, wearing ridiculously tight pants and fringe jackets. My mind was blown. They looked amazing and they were brilliant on stage.&rdquo

Love’s breakthrough finally came with the single 7 & 7 Is, which reached No.33 in the US in July 1966, giving both Love and their label, Elektra, their first hit. Sonically, it was breakneck punk 10 years before punk, but the inspiration was purely lysergic. Drummer &lsquoSnoopy’ Pfisterer described the single as &ldquoacid-flash imagery &ndash me and Arthur took a lot of LSD together in that period&rdquo. They would need 40 takes to get it right, something that caused tension. &ldquoArthur told me exactly how he wanted to play it,&rdquo said Snoopy. &ldquoBecause of that he thinks he played it! The only take you hear is mine.&rdquo

By the time Love entered RCA Studio B in September 1966 to record their second album, Da Capo, Pfisterer had been moved from drums to organ and harpsichord &ndash an indication of Lee’s ever-increasing ambition. Aware of Jim Morrison’s ambition &ldquoto be as big as Love&rdquo, Lee pulled out all the stops.

Da Capo was a tripped-out masterpiece. Or at least side one was. Gloriously psychedelic and melodically ornate, with Latin American overtones demo’d on his black Gibson acoustic, Lee exchanged the occasional morass of the debut for six pristine, classic pop songs: Stephanie Knows Who (about a girl caught in a love triangle between Lee and MacLean) MacLean’s Orange Skies, ¡Que Vida!, 7 & 7 Is, The Castle (a wanderlust musing on returning to mother, or going to Mexico) and the gorgeous She Comes In Colors. Integrating session man Tjay Cantrelli’s flute and Snoopy’s harpsichord, Lee wrote the latter about his acid fuck buddy Annette Ferrell. It was later &lsquoborrowed’ by the Stones on She’s A Rainbow.

Side two was taken up entirely by the 19-minute wig-out Revelation (aka John Lee Hooker). Do Love fans ever play this? Not so often. &ldquoOh, that long song,&rdquo Bryan mused. &ldquoIt was a shame. We should have had more songs. But we didn’t.&rdquo Echols, who steered Revelation, disagreed. &ldquoAn underrated song. The live version is really cool, one of the first true fusion jams which allowed the musicians to stretch out, and take solos. It was meant to be live in the studio, with the audience from Bido Lito’s dancing as we played.&rdquo Pfisterer’s replacement on drums, Michael Stuart, remembered the stop-start nature of recording the track. &ldquoWe took regular breaks to smoke Arthur’s blond Afghan,&rdquo he said. Lee’s own interest in Revelation was minimal.

Halfway through a four-album deal, the sales figures were depressing: Da Capo made No.80. Chances were blown. After appearing on teen TV shows Hullabaloo and American Bandstand in spring ’66, lip-synching to My Little Red Book and the bittersweet A Message To Pretty, Love were ostracised because they had blanked presenter Dick Clark (&ldquoHey, I hear you guys live in a castle?&rdquo Silence. &ldquoWe must visit &ndash for a second&rdquo).

They bamboozled the press with a couldn’t-give-a-shit stance, including the influential KRLA Beat, whose reporter they insulted when she visited The Castle and heard Bryan having sex in another room. He claimed he was too ill to be interviewed. &ldquoThe new album will be prettier sounding… easier to listen to,&rdquo Lee told her. Unaware her subjects were tripping, the writer concluded: &ldquoOnly when a group really reaches the top can their careers withstand what they may suffer from being continually rude and uncaring to fans and reporters alike. In my opinion, Love will soon be on many blacklists in the music industry, rather than &lsquoIn My Little Red Book’, where they want so badly to belong.&rdquo

Love’s biggest problem, however, was Lee’s refusal to tour outside California. Holzman implored him to bring Love to New York, but Lee wouldn’t budge. &ldquoHe was jealous of The Doors’ success&rdquo, says Holzman. &ldquoBut he wouldn’t travel far from his perch in LA.&rdquo Ever enigmatic, Lee had his reasons. On ¡Que Vida! (meaning &lsquoa wonderful life’) he sang: &lsquoWith nickels and dimes, you soon will have a dollar/Am I in your time, I see no need to swallow/Or catch a plane to travel, my mind’s not made of gravel.’

Photographer Guy Webster took the back cover image for Da Capo. &ldquoI took individual group member shots against a white background, with Arthur Lee in prime position,&rdquo he recalls. &ldquoI doubt if they were in my studio for an hour. Arthur shook my hand and said: &lsquoDo what you want with the cover, I really don’t care.’ He was nonchalant, to say the least.&rdquo So much so that the front cover of Da Capo is a virtual re-enactment of its predecessor.

Love ended 1966 with three nights at the Fillmore, headlining over Moby Grape, showcasing all of Da Capo. But things were shifting. Buffalo Springfield had landed, and Jim Morrison had given Lee a tape of The Doors’ forthcoming debut album. Radio was playing the Beach Boys’ Good Vibrations. But Lee foresaw only bad things. Ken Forssi and Johnny Echols were heading towards heroin addiction. Lee left The Castle and moved to Mulholland Drive, where Forssi would shoot up. &ldquoThen we’d look down over the city, Arthur staring and wondering about the ambulances and the sirens,&rdquo recalled Forssi.

Lee’s mind was already elsewhere. As Da Capo ebbed away, he began constructing his masterpiece, Forever Changes, which would emerge more than a year later &ndash a lifetime in the late 60s. That album would fare even worse than Love and Da Capo, but it would be garlanded belatedly as one of the great albums of the era.

Love split in the early 70s, after a final album, False Start, most notable for featuring Lee’s old buddy Jimi Hendrix playing guitar on one track. Lee embarked on an erratic solo career that wasn’t helped by his struggles with drugs he was jailed for 12 years in 1996 under California’s &lsquothree strikes’ law for negligent discharge of a firearm (he served five years). When he was diagnosed with the myeloid leukaemia that would eventually kill him in 2006, a group of celebrity fans, including Robert Plant, Ian Hunter and Ryan Adams, banded together for a tribute concert to raise money for his medical bills. His flame might have burned bright for a brief length of time, but it left an indelible mark on everything that followed.

&ldquoWe opened the gate for The Doors, Buffalo Springfield and all the groups that followed,&rdquo Lee once said. &ldquoWe were the beginning, the ones who spread the scene to San Francisco. We were only a small spark on the Sunset Strip at first, but we became a wildfire.&rdquo

Love: A Riot On Sunset Strip

How the LA club scene shaped American rock.

The last thing Jac Holzman wanted to do was go see a band he’d never heard of. It was May 1966, and the Elektra Records boss had just landed back in LA from New York on a late-night flight. Still, Arthur Lee was insistent and, as the much-respected leader of Love (the first rock act to sign to the label), Holzman valued his judgement.

Arriving at the Whisky A Go Go on the Sunset Strip, Holzman was confronted with The Doors, a four-piece band that Lee was going crazy over.

Holzman wasn’t convinced at all, but something kept drawing him back. On the fourth night he returned to the Whisky, it clicked. &ldquoJim [Morrison] generated an enormous tension with his performance, like a black hole, sucking the energy of the room into himself,&rdquo he recalled in his book Follow The Music. &ldquoThey weren’t consistent, and they needed some fine-tuning before they would be ready to record, but this was no ordinary rock’n’roll band.&rdquo Holzman duly signed them up.

Perhaps more than any other band on the Strip, The Doors embodied the cultural transformation that was sweeping across southern California in 1966. LA became the hub of an extraordinary rush of playing-live creativity, with hip clubs like the Trip, the Unicorn, Ciro’s, the Troubadour, the Cheetah and the Whisky frequented by artists such as Love, The Byrds, the Mamas And The Papas, The Association, Captain Beefheart and Frank Zappa’s Mothers Of Invention. Buffalo Springfield had made their live debut at the Troubadour, on Santa Monica Boulevard, that April. Comprising three singer-guitarists in Neil Young, Stephen Stills and Richie Furay, the band then secured their own residency at the Whisky, with the help of The Byrds’ Chris Hillman. They were a sensation. &ldquoWhat happened to Buffalo Springfield at the Whisky was similar to what happened to us at Ciro’s,&rdquo Hillman later told author Johnny Rogan. &ldquoEverybody wanted to be there. It became the place to be.&rdquo

On one memorable fortnight at the Whisky, in June ’66, The Doors opened for Them. The final night was historic, with both bands taking to the stage for a free-form encore of In The Midnight Hour and Gloria. Van Morrison’s wildcat antics left even The Doors’ singer in the shade. &ldquoIt’s funny, because we never knew Van Morrison or what he was like until he came to the Whisky,&rdquo Doors guitarist Robby Krieger remembered. &ldquoAnd there he was, stomping around, throwing the mic just like Jim would… He had some real devils inside.&rdquo

The full force of the countercultural underground was felt in November that year, when disgruntled young club-goers were involved in what came to be known as the Hippie Riots. Irked by a Sunset Strip curfew of 10pm, brought in by uptight residents and local business owners, a mass protest was held outside Pandora’s Box, a venue at the corner of Sunset Boulevard and Crescent Heights. Frank Zappa, Peter Fonda and Jack Nicholson were supposedly among the 1,000-strong group of dissenters. The subsequent fracas became the basis of Buffalo Springfield’s For What It’s Worth, recorded just weeks later, and the following year’s B-movie flick Riot On Sunset Strip. As The Doors’ keyboard player Ray Manzarek drily observed: &ldquoThe universe was changing.&rdquo


Why Suspected:  The hooded man who stabbed the couple at Lake Berryessa said he had just escaped from a prison in Montana, according to Bryan Hartnell, who survived the attack. Researcher Kevin Robert Brooks developed a lengthy circumstantial case implicating Donald Lee Bujok, who was released in 1968 from Montana’s Deer Lodge Penitentiary after serving 11 years of a life sentence for killing a sheriff’s deputy. 

According to Brooks, fellow inmates said Bujok had talked about killing people to make them slaves in the afterlife, as mentioned in a Zodiac letter.𠋻rooks claimed the Halloween card sent to reporter Paul Avery depicted harsh conditions at the prison and that 𠇋oo!” on the inside referenced Bujok’s name. Bujok had been discharged from the Army for mental-health reasons Brooks alleged that markings on some Zodiac envelopes spelled out ‘Zodiac is a veteran with 4F.” Brooks also speculated that the Zodiac’s signature crossed-circle symbol was inspired by the helicopter landing pad at Fort Ord, California, where Bujok had been stationed.

Why Ruled Out: Bujok’s fingerprints did not match those believed to be the Zodiac’s. A park ranger at Lake Berryessa claimed Hartnell said the prison was in Colorado, not Montana. Bujok was released just three days before the Zodiac’s Lake Herman Rd. killings some researchers think he would have had difficulty traveling across three states in that time. Bujok was incarcerated during the Bates murder and other early killings that may have been the Zodiac’s. He died in 1993.

Watch the video: The Complete History of Arthur Lee, Love and Recording Forever Changes, 1 of 2